See Malvoisine.

Max Schultze

Max Schultze, a German anatomist, born about 1825, died in Bonn, Jan. 16, 1874. He was professor at Bonn, where he superintended the establishment of the new anatomical laboratory. From 1858 to 1861 he elaborated the protoplasm theory. (See Protoplasm.) His works comprise Innere Bewegungserschei-nungen bei Diatomeen (in Troschel's Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 1860); Ueber Muskelkör-perchen (1860); Das Protoplasma der Rhizo-poden und der Pflanzenzellen (1863); and Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina (1866).

Max Von Pettenkofer

Max Von Pettenkofer, a German chemist, born at Lichtenheim, Bavaria, Dec. 3, 1818. He studied at Munich, was employed in the Bavarian mint from 1845 to 1847, and was afterward professor of medicine. In 1865 he became one of the editors of the Zeitschrift fur Biologie. Among his writings are: Die atmospherische Luft in Wohngebauden, (Brunswick, 1858); Ueber Oehlfarbe und Conservirung der Gemaldegalerien durch Regeneration der Bilder (1870; 2d ed., 1872); and Die Verbrei-tungsart der Cholera in Indien (1871).


See ManichAeans.


See Constantine I., the Great.

Maxime Du Camp

Maxime Du Camp, a French artist and author, born in Paris, Feb. 8, 1822. On leaving college he travelled extensively in the East in 1844-'5, and again in 1849-'51. During his last journey he made a large collection of photographic negatives of scenes in Egypt, Nubia, Palestine, and Asia Minor, which he has since published in connection with descriptive texts, in several volumes. In 1851 he was one of the five founders of the Revue de Paris, and he contributed to it both in prose and verse until its suspension in 1858. Besides his works of travel in the East, he has published Les chants modernes, poems (8vo, 1855); Mes convictions, poems (8vo, 1858); En Hollande, lettres a un ami (12mo, 1859); Expedition des Deux-Siciles (18mo, 1861); Paris, ses organes, ses fonctions et sa vie (1869). The last was contributed to the Revue des Deux Mondes. He has also written several romances.

Maximianis I

See Diocletian.

Maximianis II

See Galerius.

Maximilian Hell

Maximilian Hell, a Hungarian astronomer, born in Schemnitz, May 15, 1720, died in Vienna, April 14, 1792. At 18 years of age he entered the society of Jesus, and in 1745 was made assistant astronomer at the observatory in Vienna belonging to the order, and keeper of the museum of experimental philosophy. In 1751 he took holy orders. Subsequently he filled the chair of mathematics at Klausenburg in Transylvania for four years, and in 175G was appointed astronomer and director of the new observatory in Vienna. In April, 1708, he undertook a journey to Vardohuus in Lapland to observe the transit of Venus, June 3, 1769, in which he succeeded perfectly, and returned to Vienna in August, 1770. His chief work is a series of Ephemerides, commenced with Ephemerides Anni 1757 ad Meridianum Vin-dobonensem Cahulis definitoe, continued to the year 1791 (35 vols. 8vo, Vienna).