Ulpian (Domitius Ulpianus), a Roman jurist, assassinated at Rome, A. D. 228. He was of Tyrian origin, and during the reigns of Septimius Severus and Caracalla wrote juristical works. When Elagabalus ascended the throne in 218 he was banished, but in 222 he became one of the chief advisers of Alexander Severus, who made him Scriniorum magister, comiliarius, and proefectus annonoe. He also held the office of praetorian prefect. He was killed by the soldiers in the presence of the emperor and his mother. Ulpian was one of the most distinguished of the Roman jurists, and from his works were taken about one third of the excerpts made for Justinian's Digest.
See Abrahama Sancta Clara.
Umatilla, a N. E. county of Oregon, bordering on Washington territory, bounded N. W. by the Columbia river and E. by the Blue mountains, and watered by the Umatilla river and other streams; area, 5,300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,916, of whom 70 were Chinese. The river valleys are fertile; back of these are rolling prairies and high table lands covered with pasturage, and beyond these hills well wooded with pines. Gold is mined in the mountains and on the bars of the Columbia. Coal, copper, and iron are also found. The chief productions in 1870 were 28,209 bushels of wheat, 9,789 of Indian corn, 56,634 of oats, 11,782 of barley, 26,413 of potatoes, 97,564 lbs. of wool, 72,730 of butter, and 3,394 tons of hay. There were 13,712 horses, 7,317 milch cows, 9,240 other cattle, 29,960 sheep, and 2,027 swine. Capital, Pendleton.
Umber, a pigment much used by artists for brown and grave colors. It is made from an argillaceous brown hematite having the formula 2Fe203,3H20, by roasting, pulverizing, and mixing it with variable proportions of clay or ochre, and sometimes with a little oxide of manganese, or it may be used alone. Ordinary roasting does not drive off all the water, and in this state it is called raw umber. When strongly heated it is completely dehydrated, and is called burnt umber. It is used both in oil and water colors, and is often mixed with other pigments.
Umbre, a wading bird of the heron family, and genus scopus (Briss.). The bill is longer than the head, elevated at the base, compressed laterally, keeled above and below, and a little bent at the point; the nostrils prolonged in a furrow; third and fourth quills equal and longest; tail short and even; tarsi longer than middle toe and scaled; front toes united by membrane to first phalanx, the hind one resting wholly on the ground; claws short and slightly curved. The only described species, the tufted umbre (S. umbretta, Gm el.), is 20 in. long, with a bill of 3½ in.; the color is a uniform umber brown, the wings and tail barred with darker; the male has an occipital crest about 4 in. long, of loose feathers. It is a native of Africa.
Tufted Timbre (Scopus umbretta).