Burnouf I. Eugene, a French orientalist, born in Paris, Aug. 12, 1801, died there, May 28, 1852. He was the son of a distinguished philologist, Jean Louis Burnouf (1775-1844), inspector and librarian of the university of Paris and author of standard Greek and Latin grammars, a translation of Tacitus, etc. Eugene early began the study of the oriental languages under Chezy and Abel Remusat, and soon attained distinction. In 1826 he published his Essai sur le Pali ou langue sacree de la presqu ile au deld du Gauge, and in the following year Observations grammaticales sur quelques passages de Vessai sur le Pali. The work which placed him in the front rank of orientalists Avas the restoration of the Zend language, which he was enabled to achieve by the aid of the Sanskrit. He undertook to decipher the Zend manuscripts which had been brought from the East by Anquetil-Duperron, and caused the Vendidad-Sade, one of the books of Zoroaster, to be lithographed and published from time to time in the Journal Asiatique. In 1832 he was made a member of the academy of inscriptions, and the same year succeeded Chezy as professor of Sanskrit in the college of France. In 1835 appeared the first volume of Commen-taires sur le Yapna, Vun des litres liturgiques des Perses, a work which rendered possible for the first time a knowledge of the language and dogmas of Zoroaster. This was followed in 1836 by his Memoire sur deux inscriptions cuneifor-mes, in which he attempted to decipher the cuneiform inscriptions of Persepolis. In 1840-'44 he published the 'sanskrit text with French translation of the Bhagavat-Purdna, ou Histoire poetique de Krichna. His great work, Introduction d VMstoire du Boudhisme indien, appeared in 1845. His last work was a translation from the Sanskrit, with a commentary, of one of the fundamental books of Buddhism, Le lotus de la bonne loi, which was published shortly after his death.

A few days before his death he was appointed perpetual secretary of the academy of inscriptions. II. Emile Louis, a French scholar, cousin of the preceding, born at Va-lognes, Aug. 25,1821. He studied in the French school at Athens and at the normal school in Paris, and in 1854 became professor of ancient literature in the faculty of Nancy, and subsequently director of the French school at Athens. He has published Des principes de Vart d'apres la methode et les doctrines de Platon (1850); De Neptuno ejusque Cultu, proesertim in Pelopon-neso (1850); Extraits du Novum Organum de Bacon (1854); in conjunction with M. Leupol, Methode pour etudier la langue sanscrite sur le plan des Methodes de J. L. Burnouf (1859); Essai sur le Veda, ou introduction d la connais-sance de l'Inde (1863); Dictionnaire classique sanscrit-frangais (1863-'5); and La legende athenienne (1873); besides a number of still uncollected contributions to the Revue des Deux Mondes and other periodicals.