Carlo Passaglia, an Italian theologian, born at San Paolo, near Lucca, May 12, 1812. He became a Jesuit in 1827, studied philosophy and theology in the Roman college, and taught successively canon law and theology there till 1858, when he left the society of Jesus and was appointed by the pope professor in the Sapienza. In the discussions which preceded the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, he and Padre Perrone, another Jesuit, were chiefly conspicuous, Passaglia having published at the expense of the Roman government an elaborate work on the subject, and having prepared the first draught of the bull of definition, Ineffabilis Deus. In 1859 he published in Latin an appeal to the bishops of Italy pressing on their attention the claims of Italian unity, and urging the pope to abdicate his temporal power. He also undertook a journey to Turin to induce the ministry of Victor Emanuel to compromise with the pope. Meanwhile his appeal was placed on the Index, and his house was put under the surveillance of the police.

These measures compelled him after his return to leave Rome in disguise, and he took up his residence in Turin. There he established the journal II Mediatore, which continued to appear from 1862 to 1866. He was appointed by the king professor of moral philosophy and subsequently of theology in the university of Turin, and was elected a member of the Italian parliament in January, 1863; but there his conciliatory views met with little favor from the majority. He caused no little excitement about the same time by the publication of two papers, the one arguing the obligation of the pope to reside in Rome even after its eventual conversion into the capital of Italy, and the second claiming the right of appeal against papal excommunications, and asserting that they can only be lawfully used for spiritual purposes. He strenuously opposed the declaration of papal infallibility. His principal works are: De Prcerogativis Beati Petri, Apos-tolorum Principis (Ratisbon, 1850); Commenta-rius Theologicus de Partitione Divince Voluntatis (Rome, 1851); Pro Causa Italica ad Episcopos Gatholicos (Florence, 1859); and La questione dell' independenza ed unitd dinanzi al clero (Florence, 1861); besides remarkable treatises on the eternity of future punishments and other theological matters.