Dumas. I. Matthieu, count, a French soldier and historian, born in Montpellier, Nov. 23, 1753, died in Paris, Oct. 16, 1837. In 1780 he sailed from Brest as aide-de-camp to Rocham-beau, commander of the French troops sent to assist the Americans, and participated in nearly all the important actions of the war, including the victory of Yorktown. He was afterward for two years employed in the exploration of the seacoasts and islands of Turkey. At the beginning of the revolution he sided with Lafayette and the constitutional party. When Louis XVI. was arrested at Va-rennes he commanded the troops who accompanied him to Paris. As a member of the legislative assembly he evinced wisdom, firmness of opinion, and considerable oratorical power. During the reign of terror he was sentenced to death, but escaped to Switzerland. After the 9th Thermidor he returned to France, and was afterward elected to the council of 500. Being proscribed as a monarchist on the 18th Fructidor, he fled to Germany, where he commenced his annals of military events. Returning to his country under the consulate, he was intrusted with several important missions. In 1806 he followed Joseph Bonaparte to Naples, was appointed by him minister of war, and organized the Neapolitan army.

On the removal of Joseph to Spain he reentered the French army, and actively participated in the campaigns of 1808 in Spain and 1809 in Germany. He was superintendent of the administrative service of the Russian expedition in 1812, escaped the dangers of the disastrous retreat, was made prisoner in Germany in 1813, was liberated on the peace of 1814, and served the Bourbons during the first restoration. On the return of Napoleon from Elba he refused to join him; but yielding to the entreaties of Joseph Bonaparte, he superintended the organization of the national guards. For this he was placed on the retired list when Louis XVIII. resumed the crown. He now continued his Precis des evenements militaires, giving a copious and lucid account of military operations from 1799 (19 vols., Paris, 1816-'26). The almost total loss of his sight disabled him from completing his work, but did not prevent him from translating a portion of Napier's " History of the Peninsular War" as a supplement to it. He was elected to the chamber of deputies in 1827, evinced decision and energy during the revolution of 1830, and was instrumental in the elevation of Louis Philippe to the throne.

Besides the work above mentioned, he left some interesting personal memoirs, since published by his son under the title of Souvenirs. II. Chretien Leon, count, a French soldier, son of the preceding, born in 1800, died at Passy, Feb. 20, 1873. He served in Spain in 1823, and subsequently in Algeria, was severely wounded at the siege of Constantine, and became the principal aide-de-camp of Louis Philippe. After the revolution of 1848 he joined the Orleans family in England, and attended the count d'Eu, son of the duke de Nemours, on his marriage, Oct. 15, 1864, with the princess Isabella of Brazil. He returned with the Orleans princes to France during the German invasion, and fought gallantly.