Earls Of. I. Philip Yorke Hardwicke, first earl, an English jurist, born in Dover, Dec. 1, 1090, died in London, March 0, 1704. His grandfather, Simon Yorke, was a wealthy merchant of Dover, where his father, Philip, became a solicitor. He was educated for the law, and while a student at the Middle Temple became acquainted with Chief Justice Parker (afterward earl of Macclesfield), who employed him as companion and tutor to his sons, and used his influence to push him forward in his profession. He was called to the bar in 1715, and when his patron was made lord chancellor he entered parliament in 1719 as member for Lewes, the expenses of his election being defrayed by the government. The next year he was appointed solicitor general; soon afterward he was knighted; in 1724 he became attorney general, in 1733 lord chief justice of the king's bench and Baron Hardwicke of Hardwicke, and in 1737 lord chancellor. During the whole period of his public life he enjoyed the highest reputation for integrity and wisdom. Only three of his chancery judgments were appealed from, and those were confirmed.
During the king's absence in 1740, '48, and '52, he was one of the justices chosen to administer the government; and in 1746 he was named lord high steward of England to preside at the trial of the rebel Scottish lords, Kilmarnock, Cromartie, Bal-merino, and Lovat. In 1754 he was created Viscount Royston and earl of Hardwicke. In November, 1756, he resigned the great seal and passed the rest of his life in retirement. His life, with selections from his correspondence, speeches, and judgments, was published in 1847. II. Philip Yorke, second earl, son of the preceding, born Dec. 9, 1720, died May 16, 1790. In 1741 he was returned to parliament for Reigate, and in 1747, 1754, and 1701 for the university of Cambridge, and was in 1702 made chancellor of the university. He was one of the writers of the " Athenian Letters, or the Epistolary Correspondence of an Agent of the King of Persia residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian War" (4 vols. 8vo, 1741-'3; 4to, 1781; 2 vols. 8vo, 1789; 2 vols. 4to, 1798 and 1810; besides which, several spurious editions were published). He edited the "Correspondence of Sir Dudley Carleton" (1775), and "Miscellaneous State Papers, from 1501 to 1720 " (2 vols. 4to, 1798), and wrote a " Letter on the Subject of Ministerial Negotiation" (1785). III. Philip Yorke, third earl, nephew of the preceding, born May 27, 1757, died Nov. 18, 1834. He was lord lieutenant of Ireland from 1801 to 1800. Of his three sons, two died in infancy, and the other was lost in a storm off Lubeck, April 1, 1808. IV. Charles Philip Yorke, fourth earl, nephew of the preceding, born April 2, 1800, died Sept. 17, 1873. He entered the navy in 1815, and in 1810 served as midshipman under Lord Ex-mouth at the bombardment of Algiers. From 1831 to 1834 he was a member of the house of commons, and from 1841 to 1847 lord in waiting to the queen.
During the revolutionary period of 1848 and 1849 he commanded the frigate Vengeance at Genoa, and in the latter year contributed toward preserving that city, then in revolt, for Victor Emanuel; and in 1863 he was made an admiral. In the mean time he distinguished himself as a member of the house of lords, and in 1852, and again in 1858, was lord privy seal under Lord Derby.