I. A province of Spain, in Aragon, bordering on France and the provinces of Le-rida, Saragossa, and Navarre; area, 5,872 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 274,623. The N. part, which is covered by offsets of the Pyrenees, is rugged and mountainous; but the S. is level and fertile. The principal rivers are the Cinca, Alca-nadre, Isuela, Gallego, and Aragon, all tributaries of the Ebro. Wine, oil, and cattle are produced. Iron, copper, and lead are found, but there is little mining. The manufactures are linen, woollen, and hempen fabrics, etc. The principal towns are Iluesca, Barbas-tro, Fraga, Monzon, and Jaca. II. A town (anc. Osca), capital of the province, on the Isuela, 35 m. N. E. of Saragossa; pop. about 10,000. It is a place of great antiquity. Ser-torius founded here a college for the instruction of Iberian youth in Greek and Roman learning. Julius Caesar raised it to the dignity of a municipium, and honored it with the title of Osca Urbs Victrix. In 1096 Pedro I. of Aragon recovered this city from the Moors, who called it Weshha, and annexed it to his dominions. It is the seat of a bishop, has a beautiful Gothic cathedral, four churches, an episcopal seminary, two colleges, a theatre, and barracks. The university, which was founded by Pedro IV. of Aragon in 1354, has recently been abolished.
The industry is confined to tanning and weaving of coarse linen.