I. A native state of the Dec-can, India, called also the Nizam's Dominions, lying between lat. 15° and 21° 30' N., and Ion. 74° 40' and 81° 30' E., bounded N. by Berar, N. E. by the Central Provinces, N. W. and W. by the presidency of Bombay, and S. and S. E. by that of Madras; area, 95,337 sq. m.; pop. about 11,000,000. The surface consists chiefly of a high table land 1,800 to 2,000 ft. above the sea, several granite masses rising to an elevation of 2,500 ft. The geological formation of this region is simple. Resting on a base of granite, gneiss, and talc slate are clay, hornblende, feldspar, limestone, and sandstone; and in some parts columnar basalt is conspicuous. The principal rivers are the Godavery, flowing through the middle of the country, the Kistnah, which winds along its southern limits, and the Wurda and Paingunga in the north, all flowing in an easterly direction. The minerals comprise iron (the iron ore in the Nirmal hills being magnetic) and coal, which is found near the junction of the Godavery and Wurda. Near the Godavery are also mines of garnet, and at Parteal near Condapilly are diamond mines, from which the treasury of Golconda was formerly supplied. The soil of the country is fertile, but not well cultivated.

There is a considerable area of waste and forest lands. Wheat and cotton are the principal agricultural products; other productions are barley, rice, oil plants, cucumbers, gourds, hemp, sugar cane, tobacco, sweet potatoes, aromatic seeds, jowary (Indian millet), and bajree, a species of grain which forms the chief sustenance of the laboring classes. The principal manufactures are silks, brocades, and carpets, and in the southeast calico printing by means of wooden blocks is carried on to some extent. The chief exports are steel, cotton, and teak. The climate, owing to the elevated position of the country, is colder than is usual in this latitude. The territory is crossed by several good military roads, and the Great Indian Peninsula railway traverses the eastern and southern parts of the country. Branch lines are projected from this main line to the city of Hyderabad, and from Hyderabad to Masulipatam on the Madras coast. The government is Mohammedan, but nearly nine tenths of the people are Hindoos. - Hyderabad was anciently subject to the rajahs of Telingana and Bijana-gur. It was erected into a separate kingdom in 1512 by a Turkish adventurer, and in 1687 became a province of the Mogul empire.

Azof Jah, an officer of the court of Delhi, who in 1719 governed this and the five other provinces of the Deccan with the title of Nizam ul-Mulk ("regulator of the state"), made himself independent. On his death in 1748 the succession was disputed by his son Nazir Jung, whose cause was espoused by the English, and his grandson Mirzapha Jung, who was favored by the French. The latter finally triumphed, and governed under the direction of the French commander Dupleix until he was put to death by some Patan chiefs. During a period of anarchy which followed, the French and English supported rival claimants for the sovereignty. Nizam Ali, who came to the throne in 1761, ravaged the Carnatic, but was overpowered by a British force, and induced to sign a treaty in 1766 which gave to the East India company the Northern Circars. The English bound themselves to maintain a military force for the nizam's protection. In the war between the British and Hyder Ali, however, the nizam sided with the sultan of Mysore, but in that with Tippoo Saib he formed an alliance with the company and thepeishwa, and received a share of the spoils of victory. The accession of territory which he then obtained he subsequently ceded to the British in lieu of payment for the support of the British contingent.

On the conclusion of the first Mahratta war in 1804 his dominions were again enlarged. The misgovernment of the country under the successors of Nizam Ali plunged Hyderabad deeply in debt. The East India company was at one time creditor to the amount of £500,000 or £600,000, and in liquidation they accepted a cession of the province of Berar, part of the revenues of which were to be devoted to the support of the subsidiary native force known as the nizam's contingent. The nizam remained true to the British during the mutiny of 1857-'8, and his dominions were little disturbed except by marauders. II. A town, capital of the Nizam's Dominions, situated on the river Mussi, about 300 m. N. N. W. of Madras; pop. variously estimated at

British Residency in Hyderabad.

British Residency in Hyderabad.

80,000, 120,000, and 200,000, a large majority of whom are Mohammedans. It is a weakly fortified town, crowded with buildings, some of which are large and imposing, having numerous mosques, and surrounded by gardens of remarkable beauty. The British residency is a magnificent edifice on the opposite side of the river, connected with the town by a stone bridge. In the neighborhood there are large water tanks, one of which is 20 m. in circuit. A large British garrison is maintained at Hyderabad, and there is an extensive military cantonment at Secunderabad, a few miles N. E. of the town. The celebrated city of Golconda is 7 m. distant to the northwest.