Monmouth, a central county of New Jersey, bordering on the Atlantic ocean, drained by the Nevisink, Shrewsbury, Shark, and Toms rivers; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 46,195. Its surface is generally level, with elevations toward the northeast. It is traversed by the Freehold and Jamesburg, the New Jersey Southern and Port Monmouth branch, the Toms River and Waretown, and the Tuckerton railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 176,473 bushels of wheat, 46,507 of rye, 760,479 of Indian corn, 180,461 of oats, 1,263,403 of Irish and 50,892 of sweet potatoes, 41,582 lbs. of wool, 415,367 of butter, and 32,389 tons of hay. There were 6,035 horses, 1,254 mules and asses, 8,033 milch cows, 4,244 other cattle, 14,099 sheep, and 10,890 swine; 13 manufactories of brick, 23 of carriages and wagons, 10 of men's clothing, 5 of furniture, 3 of gold leaf and foil, 5 of tanned and 5 of curried leather, 7 of canned vegetables, 4 distilleries, 28 flour mills, and 8 saw mills. Capital, Freehold.
Monmouth, a city and the capital of Warren co., Illinois, situated at the intersection of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, and the Rockford, Rock Island, and St. Louis railroads, 90 m. N. W. of Springfield; pop. in 1870, 4,662. It is the seat of Monmouth college, established in 1856, and of the theological seminary of the Northwest, established in 1839, both under the control of the United Presbyterians. The former institution admits both sexes, and in 1873-4 had 9 instructors, 138 preparatory and 87 collegiate students, and a library of 1,850 volumes. The seminary in the same year had 3 professors, 12 students, and a library of 2,442 volumes. The city has five hotels, three public halls, two grain elevators, two flouring mills, a planing mill, three manufactories of ploughs, one of files, one of school and church furniture, three national banks, an academy, graded public schools, a library, three weekly newspapers, two monthly periodicals, and nine churches.
Monmouth, a market town and borough of England, capital of Monmouthshire, in a valley at the confluence of the Wye and Monnow, 110 m. W. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 5,874. Its castle, once the residence of John of Gaunt, is now a mere ruin. There are large iron works, and the Wye fisheries in the vicinity are flourishing. The trade consists chiefly in the export of bark and timber. The battle of Monmouth, in which Owen Glendower was defeated, was fought May 11, 1405.