Pascual Madoz, a Spanish author, born in Pamplona, May 17, 1806, died in 1870. His studies at Saragossa were interrupted in 1823 by his part in the defence of the castle of Mon-zon against the French invading army, and by his imprisonment during 17 months, after which he returned to the university, where he graduated; but, expelled on a charge of teaching Jansenist doctrines, he lived for some time at Tours in France. On his return to Spain he became editor of the Diccionario geografico universal, commenced by Bergues (10 vols., Barcelona, 1829-'34), and published a Colec-cion de causas celebres. In 1835 he was appointed judge at Barcelona, and military governor of the valley of Aran. His successful operations against the Carlists in Catalonia led to his election to the cortes. In 1842-'3 he took a promint part in the movement against Espartero. In August, 1854, he was appointed governor of Barcelona, and afterward became the leader of the progresista party in the cortes. In January, 1855, he was appointed minister of finance, and proposed the famous law of desamortisacion, decreeing the sale of the property vested in the state, the clergy, and other public bodies.

He retired from the ministry in June, and was at the head of the opposition in the cortes until July, 1856, when he was compelled to flee on account of his resistance to the cabinet of O'Donnell. He cooperated in the revolution of 1868, becoming governor of the province of Madrid, and a member of the constituent cortes. In the early part of 1870 he favored Espartero; but when Prim proposed Amadous, he again sided with him, accompanied the Spanish deputation to the Italian capital, and died on the journey. His principal work is Diccionario geografico estadistico y historico de Espana (16 vols. 4to, Madrid 1848-'50), of which he was the publisher as well as editor, having established a printing office at his own expense, and at the same time superintending the sale, the government contributing largely to the expenses.