Liberia, a Negro republic on the Pepper Coast (Guinea) of West Africa, extending 500 miles NW. and NE. of Cape Palmas, and reaching 200 miles inland. The coast-region consists of mangrove swamps, lying behind a belt of sand-dunes, is traversed by numerous rivers, and interrupted by projecting headlands of rock. About 20 miles or so inland the surface begins to rise into undulating uplands. The climate and vegetation are tropical, the temperature ranging between 75° F. and 88° F. The rainy season lasts about seven and the dry season five months. The chief exports are coffee, sugar, palm-oil and palm-kernels, cocoa, arrowroot, caoutchouc, ivory, kola nuts, etc. The total value of the trade does not probably much exceed £500,000. The pop. amounts to 2,068,000, of whom 18,000 are liberated American slaves and their descendants, the remainder indigenous Negroes, including the Kroomen. Capital, Monrovia (pop. 5000), now greatly decayed. Liberia owes its origin to the American Colonising Society, which in 1821 bought land here and settled a small body of freed African slaves. As newcomers arrived from the United States, fresh lands continued to be bought. In 1847 the republic was constituted; and it has enlarged repeatedly its boundaries, being joined in 1854 by the Negro republic Maryland (founded 1821), to the east of Cape Palinas. The constitution is modelled on that of the United States, with a president, a House of Representatives, and a Senate. No white man is allowed to acquire citizen's rights or to hold property. There is no standing army, but all citizens capable of bearing arms are enrolled in the militia. Complete religious toleration exists, the Methodist forms prevailing. The republic does not enjoy much favour in the eyes of the native Negroes, nor yet of those in the United States, although a few immigrants still arrive. There has been much intertribal warfare in the interior, but at Monrovia in 1904 all the important chiefs signed a declaration of peace.