Salamanca, a city of Spain, stands on and between four low hills beside the river Tonnes, 110 miles NW. of Madrid. Its university, founded in 1243, was till the close of the 17th c. one of the most celebrated in Europe. In the 16th c. it had from 6000 to 8000 students; now there are only 400. The university buildings date chiefly from the 15th century, and are Gothic in style. The library, founded in 1254, contains 70,500 vols. and 870 MSS. The city is still surrounded with walls, pierced by ten gates, and preserves very much of its mediaeval appearance. The river is crossed by a bridge of twenty-seven arches, in part of Roman construction. The great square is one of the largest in Spain; it is surrounded by an arcade, and has on one side the municipal buildings. The city possesses two cathedrals; the old cathedral, late Romanesque in style, dating from the 12th century; the new cathedral (1513-1734), a florid Gothic pile. Amongst the remaining noteworthy buildings are the Jesuit College (1614); the Old College, now the governor's palace; the convents of the Dominicans and the Augustinians. In the middle ages Salamanca was famous for its leather-work; at the present day it manufactures a little cloth, linen, leather, and pottery. Pop. (1900) 25,700. The town was captured by Hannibal in 222 b.c.; and the Moors were expelled in 1055. During the Peninsular war it was taken by the French (1812), and in the vicinity Wellington defeated Marmont, 22d July 1812. - The province has an area of 4940 sq. m. and a pop. of 320,770.