Salem, a town of S. India, 120 miles by rail SW. of Madras, with cotton manufactures. Pop. 70,650.


Salem, (1) a city and port of entry on a peninsula in Massachusetts Bay, 16 miles by rail N. by E. of Boston. It has a good harbour, which formerly carried on a large foreign trade; now only a coast trade in ice and coal remains. The East India Marine Society's collections are now united with those of the Peabody Academy of Science, the Essex Institute, and the Salem Athenaeum, the last two housed in Plummer Hall. The manufactures include cottons, jute, leather, shoes, iron castings, lead pipes, etc. Salem was settled in 1626. In the great witchcraft delusion of 1692 nineteen persons were hanged and one pressed to death. Hawthorne and Prescott were born here. Pop. (1880) 27,563; (1900) 35,956. - (2) Capital of Salem county, New Jersey, on Salem Creek, 3 1/2 miles from its entrance into the Delaware and 36 miles by rail SSW. of Camden. It has manufactories of glass, flour, oil-cloth, carriages, besides a foundry, planing-mills, and fruit-canneries. Pop. 5812. - (3) Capital of Oregon since 1860, on the east bank of the Willamette River, 52 miles by rail S. by W. of Portland and 720 N. of San Francisco. Here are the state capi-tol, prison, insane asylum, the Willamette University (Methodist Episcopal, 1851), etc. Pop. 4515.