Salisbury is a cathedral city, the capital of Wiltshire, and a parliamentary and municipal borough, which stands in a valley near the confluence of the rivers Avon, Bourne, Wily, and Nadder, 84 miles WSW. of London. Old Saruin (Sorbiodunuvi), from Roman times a castle and a place of much importance, now consists of a bare conical entrenched hill about a mile N. of the present city. In 1075 Bishop Herman removed the bishopric of the united sees of Ramsbury and Sherborne to Old Sarum, and began a cathedral (whose foundations are still to be traced in very dry seasons), which was finished by his successor, St Osmund, who compiled the Use of Sarum. It was in the form of a cross, 270 feet long by 70 feet wide, with a transept of 150 feet. Old Sarum returned two members to parliament until the passing of the Reform Bill, although there had for years been no inhabitants. The removal from Old Sarum to New Sarum or Salisbury took place in 1220, when the foundations of the new cathedral were laid. The Lady Chapel was consecrated in 1225, and the whole building in 1260. A double cross in plan, it is a perfect example of pure Early English style. The spire (c. 1330) is the highest in England (400 feet); it leans 27 1/2 inches towards the south. The cathedral suffered from a disastrous 'restoration' at the hands of James Wyatt (1782-91), when two 15th-century chapels and two porches were destroyed, much painted glass removed, the tombs rearranged, and a lofty isolated campanile pulled down. Much of the damage then done has been repaired in the restoration begun in 1863. The library (c. 1450) contains about 5000 volumes and many valuable MSS. The outside measurements of the cathedral are: length 473 feet, width 111 feet; the height of the nave and choir inside is 81 feet. The cathedral stands apart from any other building in the midst of a beautiful Close of about half a square mile in extent, encircled by a wall, within which stand the Bishop's Palace (an irregular building begun by Bishop Richard Poore, c. 1220), the deanery and canons' houses, and many other picturesque buildings. Other notable buildings are the council-house, where the assizes are held; the county hall; the infirmary; the 'Hall of John Hall' and Audley House, now the church-house of the diocese, two fine examples of 15th-century domestic architecture; the old George Inn (now a shop), where Pepys stayed; St Nicholas' Hospital; the market-house; the poultry-cross; and the Black more Museum, which contains one of the finest collections of prehistoric antiquities in England. The plan of the city is very regular. Water originally ran through most of the streets, but the streams were covered over after the visitation of the cholera in 1849. The spacious market-place is planted with trees, and contains statues of Lord Herbert of Lea (Sidney Herbert) and Professor Fawcett, who was a native of the city. Here the Duke of Buckingham was beheaded in 1483 when Salisbury was the headquarters of Richard III. The city chiefly depends upon its agricultural trade, the former manufactures of cutlery and woollens being extinct. Salisbury returns one member. Pop. (1851) 11,657; (1881) 14,792; (1901) 17,117. See works by Hatcher, Britton (1814), Price (1753), Dodsworth (1814), and Jones (1879, &c). - Salisbury Plain, an undulating tract of chalky down, affords splendid pasture for sheep. There are many ancient mounds and barrows, and in the midst stands Stonehenge (q.v.).