Saloni'ca, or Saloniki (Turk. Selanik), the second commercial city of European Turkey, stands at the head of the Gulf of Salonica, 820 miles SSE. of Vienna by rail (1889), via Belgrade, Uskub, and Nisch. It climbs up the rocky heights that stretch back from the shore, and is overlooked by a citadel; the white walls are 5 miles in circumference, and houses and mosques are embowered in trees of dark foliage. The mosques were, most of them, Christian churches. St Sophia, modelled after its namesake at Constantinople, built in Justinian's reign, and a mosque since 1589, is shaped like a Greek cross, and surmounted by a dome covered with mosaics. It was injured in the great fire of September 3-4, 1890, which did £800,000 of damage to the town. St George, dating from Constantine, is circular; its dome too is covered with fine mosaics. St Demetrius (7th century) is decorated internally with slabs of different coloured marble. The Old Mosque was anciently a temple of Venus. Here is the propylseum of the hippodrome in which Theodosius in 390 ordered the massacre of 7000 citizens. One of two fine handsome Roman arches was taken down in 1867; the other still stands, but in a ruinous condition. The commerce is increasing, especially since the opening of the railway to Servia. The imports consist chiefly of metal wares, textiles, coffee, petroleum, salt, sugar, rice, and soap; the exports of corn, cotton, opium, wool, tobacco, skins, silk, cocoons, etc. The industries include the manufacture of cotton, flour, soap, bricks, leather, silk, and carpets. Population, 100,000, of whom nearly 50,000 are Jews of Spanish descent, 35,000 Turks, and 15,000 Greeks. Salonica is the ancient Thessalonica, to whose Christian community St Paul addressed two epistles. Here Cicero dwelt for a time. Thessalonica was built by Cassan-der about 315 b.c. on the site of the older Therme, and was called after his wife, sister of Alexander the Great. It soon became the principal harbour of Macedonia. Under the Byzantine emperors it successfully withstood the Goths and the Slavs, but was captured by Moslems from Africa in 904, and by the Normans of south Italy in 1185. From the Venetians the Turks took it in 1430.