Turkey, or the Ottoman Empire, comprises the wide but heterogeneous territories really or nominally subject to the Osmanli sultan, in Europe, Asia, and Africa. These territories, which once extended from the Danube to the Cataracts of the Nile, and from the Euphrates to the borders of Morocco, have been greatly reduced in the 19th century. Algiers has belonged to France since 1S30; Tunis has been French since 1881; Egypt, though still tributary to 'the Porte' or Turkish government, is since 1882 unlikely to be again a Turkish province; whilst by the decisions of the Berlin Congress of 1878 the tributary states of Rou-mania and Servia became independent kingdoms, and obtained increase of territory; Montenegro, also independent, secured Dulcigno and Antivari; Austria-Hungary took Bosnia and Herzegovina under its protection; Greece absorbed Thessaly, and Bulgaria was created a tributary principality, to which Eastern Roumelia was added! in 1885. The result of these limitations is that Turkey in Europe consists merely of a strip of territory south of the Balkans, stretching across from the Black Sea to the Adriatic, and including ancient Thrace, Macedon, Epirus, and Illyria; Turkey in Africa is practically reduced to the regency of Tripoli; while Turkey in Asia still spreads from the Euxine to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, intact, save for the cession of Kars and Batoum to Russia after the war in 1877, and the transference of the administration of Cyprus to England. The area and population of the Turkish empire is as follows (according to the most recent estimates):

Immediate Possessions -

Sq. Miles.

Pop.

In Europe........................................................

65,350

6,130,200

In Asia.........................................................

693,610

16,898,700

In Africa (Tripoli).........................................

398,900

1,000,000

1,157,860

24,028,900

Tributary States -

Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia.....

37,200

3,744,300

Bosnia & Herzegovina (under Austria).........

19,800

1,591,100

Crete and Cyprus.........................................

7,040

547,400

Samos.........................................................

180

54,840

Egypt.........................................................

400,000

9,821,100

464,220

15,758,740

Total.........................................................

1,622,080

29,787,640

By vilayets or provinces, the population of European Turkey is estimated as follows: Constantinople, 1,203,000; Salonica, 1,130,800; Kos-soro, 1,038,100; Adrianople, 1,028,200; Monastir, 848,900; Yanina, 527,100; Scutari (Albania), 294,100; Chatalja (Mutessarifat), 60,000. The most populous vilayets of Asiatic Turkey are Broussa, Smyrna, Konia, and Sivas, each with over a million inhabitants. Of cities in European Turkey, Constantinople has 1,125,000 inhabitants, Salonica 105,000, and Adrianople 81,000; in Asia, Damascus has 225,000, Smyrna 201,000, Bagdad 145,000, Aleppo 127,150, Beirut 118,800. In European provinces under immediate Turkish rule, Turks, Albanians, and Greeks, nearly equal in numbers, are 70 per cent. of the population; besides Serbs, Bulgars, Roumans, Armenians, Magyars, Gypsies, Jews, and Circassians. In Asiatic Turkey the Turks come first, with four million Arabs, besides Greeks, Syrians, Kurds, Circassians, Armenians, Jews.