This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Basement Plan. Fig. 28 shows the basement plan of the residence. Dimensions are all given to the outside of the underpinning rubble wall, which in this case is 2 inches outside the sill line, as shown in the half-inch scale section. The footings of piazza piers at the front of the house are shown dotted. On the left side of the piazza is lattice-work covering the opening into the cold-air box for the furnace. The underpinning is of stone 20 inches thick; and the piazza piers are 12 inches square, built of bricks. The posts holding the girders are usually made of iron, three-quarter-inch metal, three and one-half inches in diameter. Sometimes these posts are made of iron about one-quarter inch thick, filled with concrete, the cost being about the same as that of brick piers, with the advantage of taking up less space than the latter in the cellar. The footings of the chimneys are not shown; the ash-pit under the chimney has an iron door for cleaning; and the coal-bins are made with slides, and located conveniently near the furnace and not too far from the kitchen stairs, with the partition so placed that coal can be thrown from the window into either bin. A storeroom is built with shelves, convenient to the cellar stairs. A laundry, with set tubs, is placed in the best lighted part of the cellar. A very desirable item frequently overlooked in planning, is to allow a space at the right-hand end of the laundry tubs for the clothes-basket. The laundry should also have a chimney near the laundry stove. There are also a basement toilet-room and an outside hatchway or roll way. The windows, as a rule, should be located under the windows in the upper story; and as the basement plan is frequently used on the work separately from the other plans, all dimensions should be given, so that no reference to the other plans will be necessary. The window openings may be figured to centers, but they are sometimes figured to the brick or stone opening. The heater, or hot-air furnace, is placed near the center of the cellar. The cold-air box should be arranged so as to take air from the side least affected by the changing winds (south or east). In the case here illustrated, it has been located under the front porch.
First-Floor Plan. This, the most important of all the working drawings (Fig. 29), shows at a glance the main proportions and dimensions of the whole building, besides being the plan of what, in our American manner of living, is the principal story of the house.
This house would be located to the best advantage on a lot facing the south or southeast. This would put the kitchen on the north, the dining room on the east (which would give it the desirable mornng sun), and the parlor on the south and west.
The front porch sheltering the front doorway, and the vestibule and second door, form a protection necessary in cold northern climates. The hall and staircase in the center of the house open into the principal rooms. The living room on the left, 14 by 25 feet, opens by French windows on the piazza. The parlor to the right connects by sliding doors with the dining room. The living room and dining room both have open fireplaces.
From the rear of the hall a door opens on the rear porch, and another door leads to the passage connecting with the kitchen and the back stairs. Between the dining room and the kitchen is a large china closet, having glazed shelving and also a counter shelf on which is dotted the location for a china-closet sink - which, shown in this way, would not be considered a part of a contract, but could be put in later. From the kitchen a staircase leads down to the basement. The kitchen has windows on both sides, giving a cross-draft for ventilation, which is very agreeable in summer.
In the rear of the kitchen is a pantry, with cupboards, drawers, and shelving. The large back entry is planned for a refrigerator, which has an ice door on the rear, to be put in according to the directions furnished by the refrigerator maker.
This plan should be laid out like all the others, from a center axis, the dimensions being figured to outside of studs for outside walls, and to the center of partitions for inside walls, and to the centers of the window openings.
The sill line is 7/8 inch inside the outside line of the walls shown, while the inner line representing the plaster surface is 4 3/4 or 4 7/8 inches inside the sill line. The dimensions being given in this way, it is a simple matter for the carpenter on the building to run his measuring stick between the outside studding and against the outside boarding, and to measure across, thus locating the center of an interior partition or the center of one of the windows. The location of gas and electric fixtures is shown by circles on the plans.
Second-Floor Plan. This is shown in Fig. 30. Only those dimensions are given on these plans which are not indicated on the first floor, as all second-floor partitions are supposed to rest on the partitions below, if possible. The roofs of the porch and piazza are shown. These may be covered with painted canvas or with tin, and, if they are to be much used, should be provided also with a floor of wood slats. The staircase and hall are shown with an alcove opening toward the front, lighted from the window over the front porch. This alcove is separated from the hall by an arch resting on small columns, making an attractive sitting room. There are doors from it into the adjacent bedrooms. Instead of the arched opening, a partition may be put in, making a convenient dressing room. The bedrooms are 11 by 14 feet, and are provided with closets.
One bedroom has a fireplace, and the two bedrooms on the left of the house have access to a chimney. There is a small linen closet, provided with wide shelves, opening out of the hall. Sometimes the lower part of this closet is provided with drawers, and the upper part with wide lockers having drop fronts. The opening between the front hall and the rear hall can be closed with a door, if desired; or the door can be placed opposite the partition between the bathroom and the rear bedroom. The bathroom comes directly over the butler's pantry, so that the plumbing is all very compactly arranged. The staircase to the attic goes up over the back stairs that lead down to the kitchen. The rear bedroom, which could be used as a servants' room, is provided with a large closet. A large linen closet, with shelves and drawers, opens into the rear hall.