This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Conditions. A business man, having purchased a lot sufficiently large to give him space on all sides, wishes to build a colonial house containing nine rooms.
On the first floor, a hall is to be in the center, with vestibule and porch in front and doorway at the rear, so that the air may circulate freely in the summer time. The hall is to be about 15 feet wide. At the front, on the left, opening off this hall, the owner wishes to have a large room about 14 feet by 25 feet. The parlor and dining room are to be about 14 feet by 12 feet each. On the right of the hall, next to the dining room, is to be a china closet, with shelves and drawers, connecting with the kitchen. Beyond the kitchen is to be a pantry, with shelves, cupboards, and cases of drawers. The back entry is to have a place for a refrigerator. The rear door of the front hall is to open on an ample porch, where the family may sit.
The second floor is to have four bedrooms and an alcove in the main part of the house, a convenient bathroom and bedroom in the rear, and suitable linen closets. There are to be a front stairway and a compact back stairway. The attic is to be arranged for sleeping rooms.
Sketches. The drawings first to be made are sketches at a scale of one-eighth inch to the foot, drawn on Whatman's paper, with the plans inked in and the walls shown black. The elevations may be sketched in pencil, merely the front and left-side elevations being shown.
Figs. 28 to 4P show complete working plans of a house fulfilling these conditions - a three-storied frame residence, such as is frequently constructed in our suburban country towns and smaller cities. The drawings include the basement, first floor, second floor, attic, and roof plans, front elevation, and one side elevation, corresponding framing plans, and details of different parts of the house. Details are not always included in the contract drawings, but are made as the work progresses. The rear elevation and one side elevation have been omitted, as they are of the same character as those shown. These plans are usually drawn at the scale of one-quarter inch to the foot; in the illustrations, they are reduced.
Plans. On commencing the quarter-scale, the principal dimensions should be given in feet and inches, not in fractions of an inch, to the outside line of the sill. The main contour lines should be marked first, and then the wall should be shown on the first floor, six inches thick. The sill line is shown on Fig. 29, one inch inside of the outer wall line, and is merely drawn in a little way at the corner of the building. In drawing out the plans in pencil, the lines may be run straight through, taking no notice of openings. The lines that run over can easily be erased later. In commencing to lay out the plan, it is well to draw the center lines or axes first, as all the symmetrical points of the building will be laid out from these axes. Doors and windows either center on an axis, or, as a rule, are equidistant. The bay windows and chimneys are also located if possible on the axis lines. The door and window openings in the exterior walls are not located in plan until the elevations are laid out. When this is done, the sizes of window designed on the elevation can be transferred to the plan. As mentioned previously, in working over the plans, notes should be made for the specifications and marked on the plans; for example - g. p. (glass panel); c.w. (casement window); t.1, (top light or transom light).
Elevations. In laying out the front elevation, the center line should be sketched in sharply, in pencil; and the location of the sill line should be marked at the right and left of this center line. Then the outside finished building line should be drawn one inch outside the sill line, this being the outside of the boarding.
Useful Memoranda. In laying out plans at one-quarter of an inch to the foot, the beginner is often puzzled to know the simplest way to show ordinary constructive forms; and in tracing plans, which a beginner is likely to be called upon to do, if the original is not very distinct, he will find it useful to have some guide for convenient reference - as, for example, that shown in Fig. 27. The lines in the drawing (a) of double-hung windows can all be laid to scale, though very simply expressed. The sill is shown, both outside and inside; and also the sash opening and glass opening. In a brick building, the brickwork and wood furring are shown (6). The distinction between single-sash (c) and double-hung windows (d) will be found convenient. The distinction between a casement window (f) and a French window (e) is not shown in plan, as the difference lies principally in the fact that the French window is carried to the floor. The casement window, on the other hand, is, in general, slightly different in having a mullion in the center for each sash to strike on. The French window is shown opening out, and the casement window opening in; but these could be made to open either way, and the casement window could be built singly, or in pairs, or in series.
In placing a fireplace (g) on the outside wall, an air space should always be left to prevent unnecessary cooling of the flues. The finished brick fireplace should be distinguished from the rough chimney; and, where necessary, flue linings should be shown. A space should be shown separating the furring from the brickwork at least one inch, as prescribed in all good building laws. This applies also to fireplaces on inside walls. The hearth is shown, either the width of the finished fireplace, or sometimes the width of the chimney-breast, and projecting 16, 18, 20 inches, or more into the room.
If the kitchen range is to be brick-set, a similar hearth and chimney-breast must be built (i); and in all cases it is advisable to have the kitchen duct circular (h), set in a rectangular flue which it keeps warm and which is available for ventilating the kitchen through a register set near the kitchen ceiling. The kitchen sink (j) should always be shown with drip-board. A kitchen or pantry dresser (k) should be shown with doors opening out - not sliding, unless the space is very limited. Laundry tubs (I) should be shown as indicated in the drawing. A bath-tub is indicated as shown (m), and other toilet fixtures are indicated similarly. Single (n) and double (o) sliding doors (inside), single doors (p) and double swing doors (q) are indicated as shown.