This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Attic and Roof Plan. The attic, as shown in Fig. 31, is left unfinished, with the exception of the hall at the top of the back stairs. The location of the tank is shown near a chimney, and a small closet opens off the hall. The roof lines are shown by dot-and-dash lines, which are frequently drawn in red on the working drawings. The frame line (i. e., the line of the outside of the sill and the studding) - which should appear on all the working drawings - is shown here in full, with all dimensions noted thereon.
Front and Side Elevations. As shown in Figs. 32 and 33, the character of the house is "Colonial," of about the period of the beginning of the nineteenth century. The treatment is very simple and the details should be worked out delicately to obtain the Colonial character. The construction is comparatively simple, the base being of brick, sometimes with a granite course at grade, and sometimes the whole underpinning being of split granite. The wall is covered with clapboards, with cypress or pine finish. The roof is covered with shingles. The location of the floors is shown by a dot-and-dash line, which in working drawings is frequently put in in red ink. The height of the floors is 9 feet for the first story, 8 feet 6 inches for the second story, with an attic 8 feet in the clear. The cellar is to be 8 feet high in the clear.
Detail of Front Elevation. Fig. 34, showing detail of the front elevation, is reduced from a drawing made at a scale of one-half inch to the foot. This is sufficiently large to show very clearly to the workmen the relation and character of the mouldings, which must, of course, be worked out at full size. The cornice and the front entrance are here shown, the cornice consisting of the Roman Doric Order, as treated in the Colonial period, the column having a modified Attic base, and a shaft with the customary entasis. This entasis or swelling of the column extends one-third of its height without diminution, and tapers slightly until it comes to the necking. The cap is very simple, consisting of astragal, necking, fillet, and echinus, all turned; a square abacus, consisting of a fascia, ogee, and fillet. The architrave consists of a fascia, small bead, another fascia, ogee, and fillet. The frieze in this type of building is usually plain; and the cornice, which may be greatly varied, consists, in this case, of a great quarter-hollow, fillet, quarter-round, fascia with brackets, and a corona consisting of fascia, fillet, and cyma. Between the columns is a balustrade with turned balusters. The cornice is surmounted by another balustrade with posts, top and bottom rail, and turned balusters. The doorway is worked out in old Colonial style, with paneling peculiar to that period. The sash may be made either according to the design shown, in wood, or with wide leads, which may be painted white. Windows are shown with outside casing and back band; and the center window has a small cap to accent the central portion of the house. The water-table is formed to take up the slight projections of the brick underpinning beyond the outside boarding. It consists of a wide fascia, an astragal, and a splayed member. The corner is paneled, as shown. Sometimes a plain corner-board is employed, and at other times it is made larger and finished with a Classic capital and base. The cornice of the house is similar to the cornice of the porch, the frieze and architrave being omitted, as is quite customary on Colonial houses, although there are examples of Colonial houses where the complete entablature is used. The dormer shows a peculiar Colonial treatment, using a small Doric Order on each side of the arched window. The muntins of the sash are generally worked out in wood. At the side of the roof is shown a side elevation of the dormer.
First-Floor Framing Plan. (Fig. 35.) The supports shown with a dot-and-dash line would usually be shown in red ink in the working drawings. The sill, 6 by 8 inches, laid flat, is shown with a full line running all around the building. The girders and the posts on which they rest are shown in a full line, the girders being 8 inches by 10 inches, and the posts not over 10 feet apart. The piazza girders are 4 by 6, and the piazza sills are 4 by 6. The piazza floor joists are 2 by 8 inches, 20 inches on center. The dimensions are given to the outside of the sill, and to the centers of the partitions. Where the partitions come over each other and are parallel to the joists, a joist is set 1 inch each side of the studs of the partition, so that the rough floor boards may run directly through and leave room for nailing for the finished floor each side of the partitions. Trimmers and headers are double the size of their respective floor joists, being 4 by 10 inches in this case. All joists are set 2 inches clear of the fireplace openings. The distances are given to the centers of the trimmers, but sometimes dimensions are given for the clear opening. All the first-floor joists are to be 2 by 10, placed 16 inches on centers. The bridging is shown dotted. This is made of 1 by 2 1/2-inch stock set diagonally between the joists.
It will be noticed that all the 2-inch joists except those in special locations - for example, under a partition, as above mentioned - are shown with only a single line, all other timbers being shown with a double line.
Second-Floor Framing Plan. The second-floor framing plan (Fig. 36) is similar to the first-floor, the girts, 4 by 6 inches, being shown instead of the sill. The framing of the roofs of the porches is shown, and notes are made where the girts are flush or where they are sunk. In certain cases it will be noticed that the joists are carried through, continuous. It often happens that shorter stock might have been used at no disadvantage to the building. The joists across the building should be nailed together wherever possible, so as to make a complete tie across the building.