## Cast-Iron Columns And Stanchions

Measure per foot super. State thickness of metal and weight out on Abstract. Make an allowance for featherings. This must be judged; as, for instance, a cast-iron column, say 10 feet high, will only have featherings at top and bottom, but a stanchion of the same height would have a very much larger proportion. Of course, it is quite possible to treat them as small triangles and ascertain their actual weight, and the beginner will do well to adopt this practice until he becomes able to judge fairly what percentage to add. Bill by weight, and state of what it consists; as, for example, "In No. 10 columns 8 feet high, with moulded caps and bases." Also state the height to which it has to be hoisted.

Number the Patterns, taking one pattern for each variety of casting. Where a pattern can by a slight alteration be re-used, number the "alterations to pattern."

Number the turned ends where iron abuts on iron.

Number the holes drilled or punched, stating their diameter and the thickness of metal.

Number the bolts and describe. State diameter and length, and if lewis, or with heads, nuts, and washers. Take at the same time the mortices in stone for lewis bolts and running with lead.

Cast-Iron Brackets, if small, are better numbered and described, especially if ornamental.

## Rolled Steel Joists

These are usually selected from a trade list, and so can be measured per foot run and weighted out from the list. Keep those over 30 feet long separate. Include the hoisting, and state the height. State what the weight comprises, as, e.g., "In rolled steel joists not exceeding 8 inches deep, and hoisting and fixing 10 feet above ground," or as the case may be. State that it includes cutting to lengths, or number the cuts, stating size of girder. Take one cut to each length of girder, unless it is a stock length.

## Holes And Bolts

Number these as before directed.

## Cleated And Bolted Connections

Number and fully describe these, stating the number and size of cleats to each, and the number, diameter, and length of bolts, including drilling and fixing.

## Riveted Girders

Measure the plates, etc., per foot super., and bill by weight. Add for rivet heads usually 5 per cent. State of what the weight consists, as previously explained. Number the holes, connections, etc., as before directed.

Angle Steel Shelf, riveted to web of main girder to receive ends of cross girders. Measure the angle steel per foot run, and bill by weight. Number the rivets, giving diameter and including holes through metal, stating its thickness, and state that they are to angle steel shelf. Number the ends of rolled steel joists connected to the shelf, stating the number and sizes of bolts, holes, etc., in each connection.

## Steel Roof Principals

Measure the various members as previously directed, and bill by weight under a separate heading, such as, "The following in No. 10 Steel Roof Principals, including hoisting and fixing 30 feet above ground level." State of what the various weights consist, as previously explained.

Number and describe the forgings, threaded ends, nuts, etc. Number and describe the bolts. Number and fully describe the plated joints, including the rivets, bolts, holes, etc.

## Shoes

These are now usually built up of steel plates and sections. Measure them up, and bill them by weight. Describe the shoes, and state how many.

## Plain Railings And Area Gratings, Etc

Measure the various sections per foot run, bill them by weight, and describe them as "framed." Number the forged ends, and describe them.