This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol2", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
Provide for keeping all excavations clear of water by baling, pumping, or otherwise.
Provide all requisite shoring and strutting to trenches and to sides of excavation.
The sand to be clean sharp river or pit sand of good angular grit, and free from loam or other impurities.
All cement to be best Portland from an approved manufacturer, in accordance with the specification issued by the engineering standards committee for this particular class of work, and is to be spread in a dry shed to cool before use, but not to be allowed to become inert.
The concrete for foundations to be composed of one part of blue lias lime (Portland cement), to six parts of clean (ballast) or 2(broken brick or broken-stone) and sand by measure, to be turned over twice dry, and then to have sufficient water added gradually through a rose to bring it to the required consistency and shovelled to a third heap; to be mixed in sufficient quantities only for immediate use, gently tipped into position and lightly rammed with a wooden rammer till the scum rises to the surface.
The ballast (brick and stone), etc., for concrete to be broken small, no piece to be larger than will pass through a 2-inch ring for foundations in concrete, and a 1 1/2 - inch ring for surface concrete and floors.
The concrete for upper floors and ground floors where there is a basement to be composed of one part of Portland cement to six parts of coke breeze broken to pass a 1 1/2 - inch ring, and screened from small stuff that will pass a 1/4 - inch mesh, to be mixed as previously described and deposited on flat boarded centering.
The lime mortar to be composed of one part of lime as described to three of sand by measure, mixed in sufficient quantities only for one day's use.
The cement mortar, unless otherwise specified, to be composed of one part of Portland cement to five parts of sand by measure, mixed in sufficient quantities only for use within one hour, and no cement which has commenced to set is to be used.
The bricks (except the facings) to be sound, hard, well-burnt stocks (or as the case may be), even in size and true to shape, equal to samples to be submitted to and approved by the architect.
The brickwork to be executed in the best possible manner in English bond, flushed up solid in mortar, carried up regularly all over the building; no portion to be more than 3 feet higher than any other portion at the same time; the joints to be even in thickness, and the perpends truly kept and no four courses of brickwork to rise more than 1 inch higher than the height of the courses laid dry. No bats will be allowed except where requisite for the bond.
The bricks for facings to be picked stocks (or as the case may be), sound, hard, true to shape and even in colour, to be laid Flemish bond and no false headers to be used, the joints to be raked out 3/4 inch, and pointed with a neat bevel joint as the work proceeds, and the work cleaned down as the scaffolding is removed.
The glazed bricks are to be obtained from Messrs. ------ or other approved makers, free from all defects or blemishes in the glaze, which is to be leadless and well fused into the brick.
The firebricks to be best quality from approved manufacturers.
Excavate the basement, and the trenches for foundations, to the several widths and depths shown or figured on the drawings; return, fill in and ram earth around walls and foundations, and basket out and cart away the surplus.
Excavate the trenches for water and other pipes, and fill in and ram and basket out and cart away the surplus.
Lay 6 inches of hard, dry brick rubbish under all basement floors, and level and ram to receive concrete.
Fill in to trenches for foundations with concrete as described to the several depths shown or figured on the drawings.
Lay the basement floors, yards, and areas with 6-inch Portland cement concrete laid in two operations, the lower 4 inches to be of concrete as described and the upper 2 inches (laid while the lower is still green) to be composed of one part of Portland cement to two of granite chippings to pass a 3/4-inch mesh finished smooth as paving. Where in open areas, it is to be laid to falls and currents.
Lay the ground and upper floors and flat with coke breeze concrete as described, laid between the rolled-steel joists on flat boarded centering, including the requisite hangers, the concrete to be 2 inches thicker than the depth of the joists (1 inch above and 1 inch below joist), and 6 inches thick at least, and floated on top 3/4 inch thick in Portland cement and sand (1 to 2) to receive wood block flooring or pavings.
Pave the lobbies to escape doors with cement and granite chippings as described to basement floor.
Allow for bedding wood joists in concrete of third and attic floors (see Joiner).
Cover the vaults under pavement with 6-inch Portland cement concrete as described, and laid all as last described.
The concrete partitions (coloured on plans) to be of coke breeze concrete as described, 5 inches thick, filled in between vertical boarding laid in courses not exceeding 12 inches deep, each succeeding course laid while the previous one is still green; the partitions to have |-inch diameter wrought steel rods running through same vertically not more than 8 feet apart, and from ends of partition, the rods to be threaded at ends and secured to floors at top and bottom with nuts and washers.
Put over all door and window openings, except where otherwise specified, coke breeze concrete lintels 2 inches in depth for each foot or part of a foot of span, with steel bars bedded in same 2 inches from soffit as following table, one bar to each 9 inches or part of 9 inches of soffit; the lintels to be the full thickness of internal walls, and less the depth of reveals in external ditto:-
Clear Span not exceeding Feet In.
2 x 2 x 1/4 in. T's 41/2 in.
4 x 1 3/4 ,, H 5 lbs. per ft. 6 ,,
10 0 .
43/4 x 1 3/4 ,, H 6 1/2 ,, 7 1/2 ,,
12 0 .
5 1/2 x 2 ,, H 10 1/2 ,, 9 ,,
Build the walls the various heights and thicknesses shown or figured on the drawings in brickwork in mortar as described, except where otherwise specified.
Build the foundations and basement walls up to the level of front pavement, all brickwork in backing to stone, all half-brick walls, all brick piers less than 18 inches in width between windows (from sill to head only), and all parapets and chimney stacks above roof, in brickwork in cement as described.
Lay damp course in all walls below the lowest floor and 6 inches above the level of ground, the width equal to the full thickness of wall and 1/2 inch thick of Limmer asphalt; and cut back 1/2 inch and point with cement where exposed.
Cover the vaults under pavements with similar asphalt 1/2 inch thick. Where lowest floor is below the level of outside ground cover the outer face of walls from damp course up to ground level with 3/4 inch similar asphalt laid in two thicknesses, with angle fillets to all internal angles.
Do all circular cutting, cutting to skew-backs, chamfers, splays, bird's-mouths, squint quoins, etc., as may be required.
Bed all plates and other timbers requiring it.
Bed all stone sills in sand, and rake out and point in cement at completion.
Bed all door and window frames in lime and hair mortar, and point in cement.
Do all plugging required.
Beamfill all walls level with the underside of tiles.
Cut and pin in cement all ends of stone, iron or wood requiring it, edges of slate shelves, etc., and pin up in slates in cement where required.
Rough oversail as required in regular courses to carry wall-plates, etc.; no course to project more than 2 1/3 inches in front of the course below; oversail 2 1/4 inches over basement and in all rooms where cornices are shown to carry edges of concrete floor against walls.
Cut chase 1 1/2 inches deep to receive edges of concrete floors in all other rooms.
Cut all chases required for pipes, etc.
R. W.P. Flashings. - Rake out, lead wedge and point in cement to all lead flashings and stepped flashings.
Turn rough relieving arches in half-brick rings in cement over all chimney openings on and including 3/8 by 2 inches wrought-iron cambered chimney bars 18 inches longer than the openings, and caulked up and down at ends; arches under 4 feet span to be in two rings and over 4 feet in three rings.
Cut all holes required for pipes, etc., and make good.
Core and parge all flues with cement mortar trowelled smooth.
Render all chimney backs in cement mortar.
Set all stoves and kitchener, with back boiler with all necessary firebrick, fireclay, etc.
Provide and fix to all chimneys except the two front ones approved terra-cotta chimney pots, p.c. 3s. each, set and flaunched in cement.
Provide and fix where shown in scullery approved best stoneware sink, size 3 feet 6 inches by 1 foot 9 inches by 7 inches deep in the clear, supported on approved cast-iron cantilever bracket, the edges against walls to be supported on brick oversailing courses.
Build the internal faces of all walls in basement with fair face, and point with a flat point with edges cut as the work proceeds, and twice limewhite.
Build the backs of all parapets fair face, and rake out joints and point in cement as described to facings.