The remarks as to "Window" and "External door openings" will apply generally, and the same order should be followed, with the following exceptions:-

There will be no stone step, and no fair arch in any ordinary opening. There will be a lintel the full thickness of the wall, with or without a rough relieving arch over.

As the internal doors are usually hung to linings there will be no check for frame, and consequently the deduction of the full thickness of the wall will be made in one operation. There will be no item of "Bed and point."

Drains (including digging, and laying and filling-in and ramming)


Start with the gulleys, which are numbered, and state that they include bedding in concrete and connecting to drain.


Take the branch drains from the various gulleys per foot run, and state the average depth of digging, and describe method of laying and jointing, and whether it includes a concrete bed, and if covered in all round with concrete, and state the least thickness of such concrete. Any length under 2 feet must be measured as 2 feet.

Bends And Junctions

Number and describe as "Extra for 4-inch bends" or "4 to 6-inch junctions," or as the case may be, they having been previously included in the measurement of drains.

Diminishing Pieces

Number and give both diameters, as, e.g., "Extra for 4 to 6-inch diminishing piece."

Having taken the branch drains, proceed with main drain in a similar manner.


Take these as they occur. They may be numbered and fully described, including the channel pipes and bends complete, giving the clear internal dimensions and a line sketch plan, to show the number and arrangement of the channel pipes and bends, as shown in Fig. 26.

Manholes 56

Fig. 26.

The holes for pipes and making good, including cover stones, may be included in the description, or the manholes may be measured in detail and billed all together under a separate subheading such as -

The following is in No. Manholes.

Manhole Covers And Frames

Number these and give their p.c. value, and state that they include fixing.


Number and describe, and include the building-in.

Disconnecting Traps

Numberand describe, stating their p.c. value, and include hole in wall of manhole, and cover stone and making good.

Ventilating Pipe

Number the short lengths of heavy galvanised cast-iron ventilating pipes, stating their length, and include joint to drain.

Fresh-Air Inlet Ventilators

Number and give their p.c. value, or quote the makers and catalogue number. State that they include joints to galvanised iron pipe. Measure and bill with the drains any stoneware pipe leading from manhole to vent pipe. If fixed vertically, state it. Number the bends, etc. Number the holes in walls of manhole and making good.

Lamp Holes

Number and describe. Include the covers and frames, or number these separately, and include the fixing.

Connection With Sewer

Number. The description to include opening up roadway and pavement for drain, and making good afterwards to the satisfaction of the local authorities, or pay them for doing the work; and pay all fees.

Make an item of testing drains in the presence of the architect, making good all defects and leaving all perfect. State method of testing, and if to be tested both before and after covering in.


First measure the surface excavation (if any), and the level and ram, per foot super., and bill in yards.

Brick Rubbish (If Any)

Measure per foot super. State the thickness and bill in yards.

Concrete, as last.

Floated Face, taken under tile and mosaic pavings and wood block floors, is measured per foot super. and billed in yards, and the thickness stated.

Cement Or Granolithic Paving

Measured as last, and described; or they may be included in the description of the concrete, especially the granolithic, as this should be done while the concrete is still green.

Brick Paving

Measure per foot super., and bill in yards.

Measure raking cutting and waste to all raking edges.

Tile Paving

Measure per foot super., and bill in yards. If the tiles are laid square let such dimension be a multiple of the size of the tile, and measure cutting and waste per foot run around voids (if not an exact multiple of the tiles), and to raking edges only. If tiles are laid diagonally, or in any way to require cutting to all edges, take it.

Asphalt Paving per yard super. State thickness and fully describe.

Skirtings to Asphalt Paving per foot run, and include angle fillet in the description. Number the mitres, fitted ends, etc.

Channel Formed In Pavings

Measure per foot run, and number the rounded and stopped ends.

Fitting Pavings around gulleys, manhole covers, etc.; number.

Fitting and Dishing, cement, granolithic, or asphalt pavings to gulleys. Number.