This section is from the book "Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction", by Laura I. Baldt. Also available from Amazon: Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction.
See chapter on Embroidery.
A flat trimming used for plain petticoats. Cut enough bias strips of material (see Cutting, p. 391), twice the depth desired plus one-half inch, to go around the petticoat. These strips may vary in width, and be set as far apart as desired. Join the strips for each row of banding except the final join, which must be very carefully made and must also be a bias join. Fold the strips through the center lengthwise; baste or press. Then turn the raw edges over one-quarter inch, baste or press and baste to garment. The join can be made when nearing the end of the basting. The lowest band may serve for the finish of the petticoat hem (Figs. 129 and 130).
Fig. 127. - Facings with shaped edges, hemmed, stitched, or feather-stitched.
Fig. 128. - Embroidered edging used also as facing.
FIG. 129. - Banding, bias.
Fig. 130. - Banding, mitered corner.
Ruffles are used for two purposes. Dust ruffles, narrow ones, not very full, are set into the bottom of the skirt to give more freedom in walking and save the wear on the outer flounce, which is usually of finer material. Narrow or deep ruffles are used for decoration, and to add fulness to the garment. They may be made of the material of the garment, of embroidered edging or lace (Figs. 131 and 132).
A ruffle consists of a sufficient number of strips of material joined together, to exceed the width of the space to be covered, and gathered or tucked at the upper edge to draw the extra fulness into place. The ruffle is used to give extra fulness at the lower edge of a garment (petticoat and drawers). The amount of fulness to be desired, one and one-third to one and one-half times the space to be covered, depends upon the fashion of the outer skirt.
Fig. 131. - Ruffle of embroidered edging.
Fig. 132. - Flounce of net with material banding.
To make: Decide upon the depth of the ruffle to be made, then cut as many strips the desired depth (measuring on the selvedge) as will give the necessary width at the bottom. Do not tear the selvedges from the widths just prepared, unless necessary..
To join: Overhand selvedges, if possible; French seams may be made on plain ruffles. When tucking is to be used around the ruffle, overhand edges if possible, or use plain seams or fells, as these will pass through the tucker more easily.
Fig. 133. - Dust ruffle.
Dust ruffles may be finished at the lower edge with a narrow hem; very narrow lace may be used on the edge applied by any of the various methods for finishing. The seams of the outer ruffle should be finished in one of the ways suggested above, and it may be decorated in keeping with the type of garment upon which it is to be placed. The fulness at the top of the ruffle may be adjusted with gathers or groups of narrow tucks (Fig. 133).