The payment must be voluntary to justify the inference of a new promise and therefore a partial payment collected on execution,15 or derived from foreclosure of a mortgage,16 or collected from rents and profits by a mortgagee in possession,17 or made by a receiver or an assignee 18 or trustee in

12Evans v. Davies, 4 A. ft E. 840; Bamfield v. Tupper, 7 Exch. 27; Waters v. Tompkins, 2 C. M. & R. 723; Kirk v. Williams, 24 Fed. 437; Lyman v. Warner, 113 Fed. 87, 51 C. C. A 73; Bachrach v, Jewish Foster Home, 185 Fed. 847; New Paddook-Hawley Co. v. Fayettevillo, etc., Lumber Co., 207 Fed. 786; Taylor v. Perry, 48 Ala. 240; Petty v. Gacking, 97 Ark. 217, 133 S. W. 832; MacMillan v. Clements, 33 Ind. App. 120, 70 N. E. 997; Barrett v. Sipp, 50 Ind. 304,98 N. E. 310; Topeka Capital Co. v. Meniam, 60 Kans. 397, 66 Pao. 767; Canal Bank v. Bank of Ascension, 140 La. 406, 73 So. 269; Fryeburg Parsonage Fund v. Osgood, 21 Me. 176; Fiak v. Stewart, 24 Minn. 97; Bridgeton v. Jones, 34 Mo. 471; First Cong. Soc v. Miller, 15 N. H. 520; In re Clad's Est., 214 Pa. St. 141, 63 Atl. 642.

12aBennett v. Baird, 67 111. App. 422; Wenman v. Mohawk Ins. Co., 13 Wend. 267, 28 Am. Dec. 464. In Iowa even such a written obligation is held insufficient, owing to the denial in that State of the effect usually given to part payment. Kleis v. McGrath, 127 Ia. 459, 103 N. W. 371, 69 L. R. A. 260, 109 Am. St. Rep. 396.

13 New Paddock-Hawley Co. v. Fay-etteville, etc., Lumber Co., 207 Fed. 786,792.

14 See Suber v. Richards, 618. C. 393, 39 S. E. 640.

15Taylor v. Hollard, [1902] 1 K. B. 676; Moffitt v. Carr, 48 Neb. 403, 67 N. W. 150, 58 Am. St. Rep. 696; Le-furgey v. Harrington, 36 Nova Scotia, 88.

16 Thomas v. Brewer, 55 Ia. 227, 229, 7 N. W. 571; Jacobs v. Calderwood, 4 La. Ann. 509; Buffinton v. Chase, 152 Mass. 534, 25 N. E. 977, 10 L. R. A. 123; Westinghouse Co. v. Boyle, 126 Mich. 677, 86 N. W. 136, 86 Am. St. Rep. 570; Regan v. Williams, 88 Mo. App. 577; Moffitt v. Carr, 48 Neb. 403, 67 N. W. 150, 58 Am. St Rep. 696.

17 Adams v. Holden, 111 Ia. 64, 82 N. W. 468; Shanks v. Louthan, 79 Kans 363, 99 Pac. 613.

18Hohnquist v. Gilbert, 41 Col. 113, 92 Pac. 232; Richardson v. Thomas, 13 Gray, 381, 74 Am. Dec. 636; Parsons v. Clark, 59 Mich. 414, 26 N. W. 656; Whitney v. Chambers, 17 Neb. 90, 22 N. W. 229, 52 Am. Rep. 398; Pickett v. Leonard, 34 N. Y. 175; Shelby Nat. Bank v. Hamrick, 162 N. C. 216, 78 S. E. 12; Marienthal v. Moaler, 16 bankruptcy 19 of the debtor from the proceeds of property in his hands, or paid on a judgment for interest,20 or paid by a stranger 21 is insufficient.