53. The Preferential Shop. It is agreed that the principle of the preferential shop shall prevail, to be applied in the following manner:

54. Preference shall be applied in hiring and discharge. Whenever the employer needs additional workers, he shall first make application to the union, specifying the number and kind of workers needed. The union shall be given a reasonable time to supply the specified help, and if it is unable, or for any reason fails to furnish the required people, the employer shall be at liberty to secure them in the open market as best he can.

55. In like manner, the principle of preference shall be applied in case of discharge. Should it at any time become necessary to reduce the force in conformity with the provisions of this agreement the first ones to be dismissed shall be those who are not members of the union in good and regular standing.

56. Discipline of Union Members. The Trade Board and Board of Arbitration are authorized to hear complaints from the union concerning the discipline of its members and to take any action necessary to conserve the interests of the agreement. The members referred to herein are those who have joined, or who may hereafter join, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

57. Preference in Transfers. If it becomes necessary to transfer workers from one shop to another, the non-union workers shall be the first to be transferred, unless at request of the foreman, union workers are willing to go.

58. Or if it becomes necessary in the judgment of the company to transfer a worker from a lower to a higher paid section or operation, it is agreed that union workers shall have preference in such transfers. Provided, that nothing herein shall be construed to be in conflict with the provision relating to transfer for discipline and, provided, that they are qualified to perform the work required and that their departure from their section does not work to the disadvantage of that section.

59. Overcrowding of Sections. Overcrowding of sections is important in this agreement as the point at which the provision for preference becomes operative. It is agreed that when there are too many workers in a section to permit of reasonably steady employment, a complaint may be lodged by the union, and if proved, the non-union members of the section, or as many of them as may be required to give the needed relief, shall be dismissed. For the purpose of judging the application of preference the Trade Board shall take into consideration the actual employment condition in the section, as to whether there are more people employed at the time of complaint than are needed to do the work, and whether they, or any of them, can be spared without substantial injury to the company. If it is found that the section can be reduced without substantial injury, the Trade Board shall enforce the principle of preference as contemplated in the agreement.

60. Avoidance of Injury. Among the things to be considered in the enforcement of preference are the needs of maintaining an adequate balance of sections, of the requirements of the busy season, of the difficulty of hiring substitutes, and the risk of impairing the efficiency of the organization. The claims for enforcement of preference and for avoidance of injury to the manufacturing organization are to be weighed by the Trade Board, and the interests of both claims safeguarded as far as possible, the intention being to enforce preference so far as it can be done without inflicting substantial injury on the company.

61. Preference of Seniority. If in order to properly balance sections, a reduction of force be required greater than can be secured by the laying off of a non-union worker as provided for herein, then there may be laid off those who are members of the union in the order of their seniority who have been in the employ of the company for a period of six months or less, provided that any exceptionally efficient worker, or any especially valuable member of the union, may be exempted from the rule of seniority. Provided, also, the company shall give notice to the chief deputy of its intention to discharge under this clause, and if he fails to agree the matter shall be referred to the Trade Board.