The piston rod is attached by a joint to the vibrating lever e, from which lever a chain extends over small pullies, let into the blocks d, and its ends are made fast to the other vibrating lever f; consequently, these two levers acquire reciprocating motions from the action of the piston rod. At the extremity of the crane's neck g, the two oscillating levers h h are suspended, and these being respectively attached by connecting rods i i to the levers e andf, move simultaneously with the last-mentioned levers as the piston of the engine works to and fro. The lower ends of the levers h h are attached by joints to the horizontal rods k I, and these rods are connected to the sliding blocks'which move the legs or crutches m n. The horizontal rods k I, and also the blocks which carry the legs, slide along in rebated grooves, formed in the under side of the perch a, which grooves are represented by dots, and a portion of the side of the perch is removed in the figure, to show one of the blocks o with its rollers within. The block o has small vertical wheels, or anti-friction rollers, by which it is enabled to run freely along the rebate or ledge of the groove; it has also small horizontal rollers, to prevent the block from rubbing against the sides of the groove.

In the under side of each of the blocks a pin p is fixed, which is intended to pass through the top of the legs m or n, and a small helical spring is placed upon the pin, and secured by a screw nut, for the purpose of keeping up the top of the leg against the under side of the perch, but yet affording it some degree of play. By the action of the steam engine, and the other mechanism connected thereto, the blacks o are made to slide reciprocally to and fro along the grooves of the perch, in the manner above described; and supposing one of the legs or crutches to be brought into the situation of m, the foot will take hold of the ground, and remain stationary, while the force of the machinery pressing against it will cause the carriage to slide forward, and the leg m to assume the situation of n, while n will be advanced into the situation of to; and vice versa. Thus, by the reciprocating movements of the machinery, the carriage will be progressively impelled forward by the crutches or legs. In order to turn the carriage round corners or angles in the road, the axle of the hinder wheels is made to move round horizontally, upon a central pin, by means of a strap or other contrivance applied at q.

By this strap and a suitable handle or lever, the conductor guides the course of the carriage in a straight or curved direction.

Steam Carriages 499

Goldsworthy Gurney's Steam Carriage

First Patent 1825.

No pretensions are made by Mr. Gurney in his specification of having invented any part of the machinery described therein but the "guide rollers" to the crutches, as the crutches themselves were suggested by previous patentees; and it will be seen that these crutches and rollers were abandoned as useless by Mr. Gurney himself. Were we to describe minutely the numerous contrivances and alterations made by the patentee and his assistant, it would occupy as much space as the whole of this article, and be at the same time a very uninteresting and profitless history of errors and failures, which few men having a knowledge of steam and machinery would have committed.

Steam Carriages 500

Gurney

1831.

The preceding carriage represents oneof the latest productions of Mr. Gurney, who built three upon the same model for Sir Charles Dance, which ran regularly from Cheltenham to Gloucester during a period of three or four months. These carriages were employed as drags, to draw after them the passengers contained in a light carriage of the omnibus kind. Only one of the drags was, we believe, in use at a time, the others being kept in dock to supply a fresh one, whenever repairs became necessary to the one in use.

An arrangement for a locomotive carriage was patented in December, 1826, by Mr. Frederick Andrews, of Stamford Rivers, in Essex; the peculiarities in which consist, first, in employing a single steering wheel in front of the carriage, the axis of which revolves in two lateral bars of a framing that connects it to the axletree of the four wheels, and thereby turns the latter with it. To give effect to this steering wheel, the framing is designed to carry luggage, or other sufficiently heavy articles. Another arrangement of the inventor's consisted in employing a pair of engines working upon pivots or trunnions, so that by their vibrations the piston rods might be directly connected to the throws of the crank, and adapt their inclinations to the varied motion of the latter. The other arrangements will be easiest understood by reference to the annexed cut. a shows a vertical section of a cylindrical boiler; c is the furnace, the heated matters from which pass longitudinally under the boiler, and then return to the front through a central flue b, before it enters the chimney, not shown.

Transversely through the centre of the boiler there is a tubular passage, open at each end, through which the axis of the wheels g g passes, sufficient space being made in that tube for the cranked portions f f of the axis also to pass through. The piston rods being connected to the throws of the crank, it of course causes them to revolve, and with them the wheels by which the carriage is propelled. The boiler is suspended by stout iron arms to a frame above, which forms a part of the general frame, and is supported upon springs; the furnace c is suspended to the boiler by straps, the sides of which are lined by a series of horizontal tubes, in connexion with the boiler, which serve the double purpose of intercepting lateral radiation, and of assisting in the generation of vapour.