The following are the principles on which the art of lithography depends; - the facility with which calcareous stones imbibe water; the great disposition they have to adhere to resinous and oily substances; and the affinity between each other of oily and resinous substances, and the power they possess of repelling water, or a body moistened with water. Hence when drawings are made on a polished surface of calcareous stone, with a resinous or oily medium, they are so adhesive that nothing short of mechanical means can effect their separation from it; and whilst the other parts of the stone take up the water poured upon them, the resinous or oily parts repel it. When, therefore, over a stone prepared in this manner, a coloured oily or resinous substance is passed, it will adhere to the drawings made as above, and not to those parts of the stone which have been watered. The ink and chalk used in lithography are of a saponaceous quality; the former is prepared in Germany from a compound of curd or common soap, pure white wax, a small quantity of tallow and shellac, and a portion of lampblack, all boiled together, and, when cool, dissolved in distilled water. The chalk for the crayons used in drawing on the stone is a composition consisting of the ingredients above mentioned.

After the drawing on the stone has been executed, and is perfectly dry, a very weak solution of nitric acid is poured upon the stone, which not only takes up the alkali from the chalk or ink, as the case may be, leaving an insoluble substance behind it, but lower-:, to a small extent, that part of the surface of the stone not drawn upon, thus preparing it to absorb water with greater freedom. Weak gum water is then applied to the stone, to close its pores and keep it moist. The stone is now washed with water, and the printing ink is applied with rollers, as in letterpress printing; after which it is passed, in the usual way, through the press, the processes of watering and inking being repeated for every impression. If the work is inclined to get smutty, a little vinegar or stale beer should be put into the water that is used to damp the stone.

There is a mode of transferrins: draw-ings made with the chemical ink on paper prepared with a composition of paste, isinglass, and gamboge, which, being damped, laid on the stone, and passed through the press, leaves the drawing on the stone, and the process above described for preparing the stone and taking the impressions is carried into effect.

Lithographic Stones

Stones are prepared for chalk drawings by rubbing two together, with a little silver sand and water between them, taking care to sift the sand to prevent any large grains from getting in, by which the surface would be scratched. The upper stone is moved in small circles over the under one till the surface of each is sufficiently even, when they are washed, and common yellow sand is substituted for the silver sand, by which means is procurel a finer grain. They are then again washed clean, and wiped dry. It will be found that the upper stone is always of a finer grain than the under one. To prepare stones for writing or ink drawings, they are rubbed with brown sand, washed, and rubbed with powdered pumice; the stones are again washed, and each polished separately with a fine piece of pumice or water Ayr-stone. Chalk can never be used on the stones prepared in this manner. The same process is followed in order to clean a stone that has already been used.

Lithographic Ink

Tallow, 2 oz.; virgin wax, 2 oz.; shellac, 2 oz.; common soap, 2 oz.; lampblack, 1/2 oz. The wax and tallow are first put in an iron saucepan with a cover, and heated till they ignite; whilst they are burning the soap must be thrown in, a small piece at a time, taking care that the first is melted before a second is put in. When all the soap is melted the ingredients are allowed to continue burning till they are reduced one third in volume. The shellac is now added, and as soon as it is melted the flame must be extinguished. It is often uecessary in the course of the operation to extinguish the flame and take the saucepan from the fire, to prevent the contents from boiling over; but if any parts are not completely melted, they must be dissolved over the fire without being again ignited. The black is next added. When it is completely mixed the whole mass should be poured out on a marble slab, and a heavy weight laid upon it to render its texture fine. The utmost care and experience are required in making both the ink and chalk, and even those who have had the greatest practice often fail. Sometimes it is not sufficiently burned, and when mixed with water appears slimy; it must then be remelted and burned a little more.

Sometimes it is too much burned, by which the greasy particles are more or less destroyed; in this case it must be remelted, and a little more soap and wax added. This ink is for writing or pen-drawing on the stone. The ink for transfers should have a little more wax in it.

Lithographic Chalk

Common soap, 1 1/2 oz.; tallow, 2 oz.; virgin wax, 2 1/2 oz.; shellac, 1 oz.; lampblack, 1/4 oz. Mix as for lithographic ink.

Lithographic Transfer Paper

Dissolve in water 1/2 oz. gum tragacanth. Strain and add 1. oz. glue and 1/2 oz. gamboge. Then take 4 oz. French chalk, 1/2 oz. old plaster of Paris, 1 oz. starch; powder, and sift through a fine sieve; grind up, with the gum, glue, and gamboge; then add sufficient water to give it the consistence of oil, and apply with a brush to thin sized paper.


The drawing or writing made on the prepared side of the transfer paper is wetted on the back, and placed, face downwards, on the stone, which must previously be very slightly warmed, say to about 125° F. Pass the stone through the press four or five times, then damp the paper, and carefully remove it.

Drawing On Stone

The subject should first be traced on the stone in red, great care being taken not to touch the stone with the fingers. Or the drawing may be done by means of a black-lead pencil; but this is objectionable, as it is difficult to distinguish the line from that made by the chalk or ink. Then, having a rest to steady the hand, go over the drawing with the chalk, pressing it with sufficient firmness to make it adhere to the stone. For flat tints, considerable practice is necessary to secure an even appearance, which is only to be obtained by making a great many faint strokes over the required ground. Lights may either be left, or, if very fine, can be scraped through the chalk with a scraper. If any part is male too dark, the chalk must be picked off with a needle down to the required strength.

Etching-In, For Printing On Stone

Dilute 1 part of aquafortis with 100 parts of water. Place the stone in a sloping position, then pour the solution over it, letting it run to and fro until it produces a slight effervescence. Then wash the stone with water, and afterwards pour weak gum water over it. The acid, by destroying the alkali on the lithographic chalk, causes the stone to refuse the printing ink except where touched by the chalk; the gum water fills up the pores of the stone, and thus prevents the lines of the drawing from spreading. When the stone is drawn on with ink, there must be a little more acid used with the water than when the drawing is made with chalk. The roller charged with printing ink is then passed over the stone, which must not be too wet, and the impression is taken as before described.

Engraving On Stone

The stone must be highly polished; pour the solution of aquafortis and water over it, washing it off at once. When dry, cover with gum water and lampblack; let this dry, then etch with a needle, as on copper. It is necessary to cut the surface of the stone through the gum, the distinction of light and dark lines being obtained by the use of fine or broad-pointed needles. Rub all over with linseed oil, and wash the gum off with water. The lines on the stone will appear thicker than they will print.

Imitating Woodcuts On Stone

Cover with ink those parts meant to be black; scratch out the lights with an etching needle; the lines which come against a white background are best laid on with a very fine brush and lithographic ink.

Inking Holler

Fasten a smooth piece of leather round a wooden roller of the required length.

Removing The Transfer

The existing transfer is ground away by rubbing it with another piece of stone, putting sand between, like grinding flour between the millstones, using finer sand as it gradually wears away; then it is ground with rotten-stone till of the requisite fineness for the next transfer.

Transferring From Copper To Stone

In transferring from copper to stone use prepared paper, that is, ordinary unsized paper, coated with a paste of starch, gum-arabic, and alum. Take about 60 parts of starch, and mix with water to a thinnish consistency over a fire; have 20 parts of gum ready dissolved, and also 10 parts of alum dissolved; when the starch is well mixed, put in the gum and alum. While still hot, coat the paper with it in very even layers, dry, and smooth out. Take an impression from the copper with the transfer ink; lay the paper on the stone, damp the back thoroughly with a sponge and water, and pass through the jitho-prcss. If all is right, the impression will be found transferred to the stone, but it will of course require preparing in the usual manner. The great advantage gained is, that very many more impressions may be printed from stone than from a copper plate, and very much quicker.