(1) Carriage tops that have faded and become grey can be restored by washing with a solution composed of 4 oz. of nut galls, I oz. each of logwood, copperas, clean iron filings, and sumach berries; put all but the iron filings and copperas in I qt. of the best white wine vinegar, and heat nearly to the boiling-point; then add the copperas and iron filings; let them stand for 24 hours, and strain off the liquid; apply with a sponge. This is equally good for restoring black cloths. (2) Enamelled leather tops that have been soiled by dust and rain should be washed with soft water and Castile or crown soap. Apply the water with a sponge and then scrub with a moderately stiff brush; cleanse with clean water and dry with a "shammy." Never apply any kind of oil or top dressing without first cleaning the leather. (3) To clean mouldy leather, remove the surface mould with a dry cloth, and with another cloth apply pyro-ligneous acid. (4) To clean russet leather-covered mountings, remove all stains and dirt by rubbing the leather with a cloth and a little oxalic acid, and restore the colour and finish by the use of salts of lemon, applied with a woollen cloth.

Rub the leather until a good polish is produced. (5) To clean rubber-covered mountings, rub the covered as well as the metallic parts with a "shammy" and a little tripoli, and finish with a clean woollen cloth. (6) To clean a soiled chamois-leather, make a solution of weak soda and warm water, rub plenty of soft soap into the leather, and allow it to remain in soak for 2 hours, then rub it well until it is quite clean. Afterwards rinse it well in a weak solution composed of warm water, soda, and yellow soap. If rinsed in water only, it becomes hard when dry, and unfit for use. The small quantity of soap left in the leather allows the finer particles of the leather to separate and become soft like silk. After rinsing, wring it well in a rough towel, and dry quickly; then pull it about and brush it well, and it will become softer and better than most new leathers. (7) To clean morocco leather, strain well over a board, and scour with stiff brush, using tepid water and soft-soap, made slightly acid with oxalic acid; when done, unstrain the leather, and dry in a cool place; do not saturate the leather, but keep the board inclined; when dry, rub a little oil lightly over the surface with a rag. (8) To clean riding saddles.

If much soiled, wash the leather with a weak solution of oxalic acid and water, and, when dry, with the watery portion of beef blood. The latter can be preserved by adding a little carbolic acid, and keeping it in a bottle tightly corked. (9) Brown saddles may be cleaned to look as well as new by the use of tepid water and crown soap; if the latter cannot be had, use pure Castile soap. Marble. - -(1) Take finely powdered pumice-stone and vinegar, wash the surface with the mixture, and leave it for several hours, then brush it hard and wash it clean. When dry, rub it with whiting and washleather. (2) Equal parts of caustic potash, quicklime, and soft-soap; make into a thick paste with water, and apply with a brush; leave for about a week, and apply again and again until the stain has disappeared. (3) 2 parts soda (carbonate), 1 of pumice-stone, and 1 of finely powdered chalk. Mix into a fine paste with water. Rub this over the marble, and the stains will be removed; then wash with soap and water. (4) Wash the marble thoroughly with soda and warm water to remove any grease, and apply oxalic acid by laying a piece of white cotton cloth saturated upon the spots for a short time. If it destroys the polish, repolish with oxide of tin and water applied with a cloth.

If the stains are not deep, rub the surface only with the oxalic acid and water upon a small piece of cloth quickly, and wash, to free the marble of acid. Then, to give it a gloss, rub with chalk wet with water. (5) Marble figures may be washed clean by putting them out in a heavy shower.