Paste blackings are also made in a variety of ways, of which the following are the chief: -

(1) Bryant and James's indiarubber blacking may be made in a solid form by reducing the proportion of vinegar from 20 gal. to 12. The compound then only requires stirring for about 6 or 7 days in order to prepare it for use, and it may be liquefied by subsequent addition of vinegar.

(2) Dr. Artus manufactures blacking from the following materials: - Lampblack, 3 or 4 lb.; animal charcoal, 1/2 lb.; are well mixed with glycerine and treacle, 5 lb. Meanwhile guttapercha, 2 1/2 oz., is cautiously fused in an iron or copper saucepan, and to it is added olive oil, 10 oz., with continual stirring, and afterwards stearine, 1 oz. The warm mass is added to the former mixture, and then a solution of 5 oz. gum Senegal, in l 1/2 lb. water, and 1 dr. each of rosemary and lavender oils may be added. For use it is diluted with 3-4 parts of water, and tends to keep the leather soft, and render it more durable.

(3) All ordinary paste blackings require to be mixed with some liquid before application, causing considerable waste. It is claimed for the subjoined method of preparation, that by its means the blacking is rendered of such a condition that when merely dipped in water or other solvents the required quantity can be rubbed on to the article to be blacked without the cake crumbling or breaking up. The ingredients of the blacking are those in ordinary use, but it is brought to the required consistence by combination with Russian tallow, in the proportiou of 3 per cent. and casting the mass into the desired forms. These may be cylindrical, etc, and may be enclosed in covers of cardboard, tinfoil, etc, in which the blacking can slide, so that when one end is pushed out for use, the remainder acts as a handle. The exposed end, when damped by immersion or otherwise, can be rubbed on the article without crumbling. The ivory black (animal charcoal) which has been used in the preparation of white paraffin, according to Letch ford and Nation's patent, may be conveniently used for making blacking.

(4) The addition of sulphuric acid to animal charcoal and sugar produces lime sulphate and a soluble acid lime phosphate, which make a tenacious paste. Thus: Animal charcoal, 8 parts; molasses, 4; hydrochloric acid, 1; sulphuric acid, 2. These are well mixed. A liquid blacking may be produced from this by the addition of the necessary proportion of water.

(5) Fullers' earth, 8 oz.; treacle, 3 lb.; animal charcoal, 2 lb.; butter scrapings, 4 oz.; rapeseed oil, 4 oz.; strong gum water, 1/2 pint; powdered Prussian blue, 1/2 oz.; commercial sulphuric acid, 8 oz. If the blacking is required in a liquid form, add \ gal. vinegar.

(6) To 1 lb. animal charcoal add 4 oz. commercial sulphuric acid; work them well together, and when the acid has done its duty upon the charcoal add 4 oz. fish or colza oil; stir the mixture till the oil is thoroughly incorporated, then pour in gradually a strong solution of washing soda or other suitable antacid, and continue the stirring till ebullition ceases, or the acid is neutralised. Next add about 8 oz. treacle, and then pour in a solution of gelatine and glycerine, in quantity about 2 qt. if liquid blacking is required, but less will suffice to produce paste. The solution of glycerine and gelatine is made by dissolving the best size in hot water, in the proportion of 4 parts water to 1 of size, and then adding to every qt. of the liquid 1 1/2 oz. glycerine. The addition of the glycerine and gelatine preparation gives great brilliancy, depth of colour, and permanency to the blacking when applied to leather, and at the same time makes it damp-proof; besides which the antacid has the effect of neutralising the sulphuric acid employed, and thus prevents the injurious action of that acid on the leather, as in the case of most ordinary blackings.

(7) Soften 1 part white glue in water, add 3 parts crown soap, and heat the whole over a slow fire until the glue is thoroughly dissolved; moisten 3 parts bone-black with vinegar, and mix it with 1 part wheat starch, beaten smooth in cold water; mix the whole, and allow it to stand over a slow fire for 1/2 hour, stirring it all the time; then turn it into another kettle and stir it until it is cold. To use, dissolve a small quantity in sour beer or vinegar, and apply with a brush, spreading it as thinly as possible.

(8) A leather varnish or polish is prepared by Gunther, of Berlin, by mixing a filtered solution of 80 parts shellac in 15 of alcohol, with 3 of wax, 2 of castor oil, and a sufficient quantity of pigment. The mixture is evaporated in vacuo to a syrup. The varnish is applied to the leather with a brush moistened with alcohol or with a colourless alcoholic varnish.

(9) Soften 2 lb. good glue, and melt it in an ordinary glue kettle; then dissolve 2 lb. Castile soap in warm water and pour it into the glue; stir until well mixed, and add 1/2 lb. yellow wax cut into small pieces; stir well until the wax is melted, then add 1/2 pint neats'-foot oil and enough lampblack to give the desired colour. When thoroughly mixed, it is ready for use.

(10) Waterproof

Melt together 4 oz. black rosin and 6 oz. beeswax over a slow fire; when thoroughly dissolved, add 1 oz. lampblack and 1/4 lb. finely powdered Prussian blue; stir the mixture well, and add sufficient turpentine to make a thin paste. Apply with a cloth and polish with a brush.

(11) Liebig's

Mix bone-black in 1/2 its weight of molasses, and 1/8 its weight of olive oil, to which add 1/2 its weight of hydrochloric acid and 1/4 its weight of strong sulphuric acid, with a sufficient quantity of water to produce a thin paste.

(12) Molasses, 1 lb.; ivory black, 1 1/4 1b.; sweet oil, 2 lb. Rub together in a Wedgwood mortar till all the ingredients form a perfectly smooth homogeneous mixture; then add a little lemon juice or strong vinegar - say the juice of one lemon, or about a wineglassful of strong vinegar - and thoroughly incorporate, with just enough water added slowly to gain the required consistency.