The workmen who make these moulds must know how to sculpture very well, and must also possess some skill in the reproduction of complicated subjects, and know how to divide and arrange their moulds. These moulds are very costly. Some of them, which furnish true works of art, have cost as much as 120/.

We said in the beginning that mechanics could not be applied to this industry, and the reader has now seen that the only operation that could be performed mechanically is that of moulding.

The clay pipe industry is remarkable from more than one point of view. Aside from the difficulties of manufacturing, we find the division of labour pushed to its extremest limit, and this permits of a cheap production and of low selling prices after passing through three hands - those of the producer, the wholesaler, and the retailer.

It is remarkable, in that it gives employment to an entire family, and that, too, without occasioning a fatigue disproportionate to age or sex. This manufacture is essentially French, and its importance is daily increasing, despite the formidable competition of wooden pipes and of cigarettes, French products being much superior to those of other countries.

A pipe manufactory occupies an area of about 100,000 sq, ft., and gives employment to 500-600 persons, exclusive of children less than 12 years of age. The annual product is 120,000 gross. The number of styles is infinite, and is daily increasing, as the dealer is continually asking for new models. (Les Inventions Nouvelles.)

The clay of which these are made is obtained in Devonshire, in large lumps, which are purified by dissolving in water in large pits, where the solution is well stirred up, by which the stones and coarse matter are deposited; the clayey solution is then poured oft into another, where it subsides and deposits the clay. The water, when clear, is drawn off, and the clay at the bottom is left sufficiently dry for use. Thus prepared, the clay is spread on a board, and beaten with an iron bar to temper and mix it; then it is divided into pieces of the proper size to form a tobacco pipe; each of these pieces is rolled under the hand into a long roll, with a bulb at one end to form the bowl; and in this state they are laid up in parcels for a day or two, until they become sufficiently dry for pressing, which is the next process, and is conducted in the following manner: - The roll of clay is put between two iron moulds, each of which is impressed with the figure of one-half of the pipe; before these are brought together a piece of wire of the size of the bore is inserted midway between them; they are then forced together in a press by means of a screw upon a bench.

A lever is next depressed, by which a tool enters the bulb at the end, and compresses it into the form of a bowl; and the wire in the pipe is afterward thrust backwards and forwards to carry the tube perfectly through into the bowl. The press is now opened by turning back the screw, and the mould is taken out. A knife is next thrust into a cleft of the mould left for the purpose, to cut the end of the bowl smooth and flat; the wire is carefully withdrawn, and the pipe is taken out of the mould. The pipes when so far completed, are laid by 2 or 3 days, properly arranged, to let the air have access to all their parts, till they become stiff, when they are dressed with scrapers to take off the impressions of the joints of the moulds; they are afterwards smoothed and polished with a piece of hard wood. The next process is that of baking or burning; and this is performed in a furnace of peculiar construction. It is built within a cylinder of brickwork, having a dome at top, and a chimney rising from it to a considerable height, to promote the draught. Within this is a lining of fire-brick, having a fireplace at the bottom of it.

The pot which contains the pipes is formed of broken pieces of pipes cemented together by fresh clay, and hardened by burning; it has a number of vertical flues surrounding it, conducting the flame from the fire-grate into the dome, and through a hole in the dome up to the chimney. Within the pot several projecting rings are made; and upon these the bowls of the pipes are supported, the ends resting upon circular pieces of pottery, which stand on small loose pillars rising up in the centre. By this arrangement a small pot or crucible can be made to contain 50 gross of pipes without the risk of damaging any of them. The pipes are pot into the pot at one side, when the crucible is open; but when filled, this orifice is made up with broken pipes and fresh clay. At first the fire is but gentle, but it is increased by degrees to the proper temperature, and so continued for 7-8 hours, when it is damped, and suffered to cool gradually; and when cold, the pipes are taken out ready for sale.


(1) The following note on the so-called briar-root pipes is from a report on the trade and commerce of Leghorn: - An interesting industry has been started here lately by a Frenchman from Carcasonne, for the export of material for the manufacture of wooden pipes. Similar works are also to be found at Sienna and Grosseto. Selected roots of the heath (Erica arbored) - preference being given to the male variety - are collected on the hills of the Maremma, where the plant grows luxuriantly and attains a great size. When brought to the factory, the roots are cleared of earth, and any decayed parts are cut away. They are then shaped into blocks of various dimensions with a circular saw set in motion by a small steam-engine. Great dexterity is necessary at this stage in cutting the wood to the best advantage, and it is only after a long apprenticeship that a workman is thoroughly efficient. The blocks are then placed in a vat, and subjected to a gentle simmering for a space of 12 hours. During this process they acquire the rich yellowish-brown hue for which the best pipes are noted, and are then in a condition to receive the final turning and boring, bnt this is not done here.