This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Aquatic herbs, with cylindric thick horizontal rootstocks, and large cordate leaves with -a deep sinus. Flowers showy, yellow, or sometimes purplish. Sepals 5-6, concave, thick. Petals ∞, small, stamen-like, hypogynous. Stamens ∞, hypogynous. Carpels ∞, many-ovuled, united into a compound pistil. Stigmas disciform, 8-24-radiate. Fruit ovoid, naked. Seeds with endosperm. [Greek, water-nymph.]
A genus of about 8 species, natives of the north temperate zone. Type species: Nymphaea lutea L.
Leaves broadly ovate or oval.
Leaves 5'-12' long; stigma 12-24-rayed; petals truncate, fleshy.
Leaves 2'-4' long; stigma 7-10-rayed; petals spatulate, thin.
Leaves narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate.
1789. Nuphar advena R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 3:
295. 1811. N. advena minor Morong, Bot. Gaz. 11: 167. 1886.
Floating and emersed leaves 5'-12' long, 5'-9' broad, ovate or orbicular-oval, thick, the sinus 2-5' deep, generally open; submerged leaves, when present, thin-membranous, nearly orbicular, otherwise similar; petioles, peduncles and lower surfaces of the leaves often pubescent; flowers 1 1/2'-3 1/2' in diameter, depressed-globose, yellow or tinged with purple; sepals 6, oblong, about 1 1/2 long; petals fleshy, oblong, truncate, 4"-S" long; stamens in 5-7 rows; anthers about the length of the filaments; stigmatic disc undulate, yellow, or pale red, rays 12-24; fruit ovoid, not deeply constricted into a neck, 1 1/2'-2' long, about I thick.
In ponds and slow streams, Labrador and Nova Scotia to the Rocky Mountains, south to Florida, Texas and Utah. April-Sept. Beaver-root. Bonnets. Cow-, frog-, dog-, horse- or beaver-lily. Spatter-dock. Apparently consists of several races, or, as here described, includes more than one species.
Nymphaea rubrodisca (Morong) Greene, differing by fewer stigma-rays and spatulate petals, admitted as a species in our first edition, is probably a hybrid between N. advena and N. microphylla, Nymphaea fratÚrna Miller & Standley, recently described from the pine-barrens of New Jersey, has smaller flowers and fruit than N. advena.
Nymphaea lutea var. Kalmiana Michx. Fl. Bor.
Am. 1: 311. 1803. Nymphaea microphylla Pers. Syn. 2: 63. 1807. Nuphar Kalmianum R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew.
Ed. 2, 3: 295. 1811. N. Kalmiana Sims, Bot. Mag. pl. 1243. 1809.
Leaves 2'-4' long, 1'-3' broad, the sinus open or closed, commonly more or less pubescent beneath; submerged ones always present, membranous, orbicular, larger; flowers 1' in diameter or less, yellow; sepals 5; petals thin and delicate, 2" long; stamens in 3 or 4 rows, narrowly linear, the anther one-fourth the length of the filaments; stigmatic disk crenate or stellate, 2"-3" broad, 6-7-rayed, dark red; fruit ovoid, 6"-7" long, with a short neck.
Nymphaea sagittaefolia Walt. Fl. Car. 155. 1788.
Nuphar sagittaefolia Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 370. 1814.
Floating leaves narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, obtuse, 8'-15' long, 2'-3' wide; submerged ones numerous, similar, but membranous and commonly larger; flowers yellow, about 1' broad; sepals 5; petals broadened above, 3" long; stamens in 4 or 5 rows, the filaments about equalling the anthers; stigmatic disk crenate, 11-15-rayed; fruit ovoid, not constricted into a neck, about 1' long.
In ponds and streams, eastern North Carolina and South Carolina. Recorded as occurring in ponds (now drained) in southern Indiana and Illinois. Plants of the Gulf States formerly referred to this species prove to be distinct. Alligator-bonnets. Summer.