This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
A large tree, with rough bark, reaching a maximum height of no° and trunk diameter of 5o; branches horizontal, especially when the tree is young. Leaves obovate or oval, acute, acuminate, or obtuse at the apex, usually narrowed at the base, entire, glabrous and shining above, more or less pubescent beneath, 2'-4' long; petioles 4"-7" long; staminate flowers in compound capitate clusters; pistillate flowers larger, 2-14 together; fruit ovoid, nearly black, 4"-7" long, acid; stone ovoid, more or less flattened and ridged.
In rich soil, most abundant in swamps, Maine and Ontario to Florida, Michigan, Missouri and Texas. Leaves crimson in autumn, rarely angu-late-toothed on young trees. Wood soft, tough, light yellow; weight per cubic foot 40 lbs. Black gum. Swamp-hornbeam. Yellow gum-tree.
Snag-tree. Beetle-bung. Hornbeam. Hornpipe. Hornbine. Hornpine. April-June.
Nyssa biflora Walt. Fl. Car. 253. 1788. Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora Sargent. Sylva 5: 76. pl. 218. 1893.
Similar to the preceding species, the base of the trunk much swollen. Leaves mostly smaller and narrower, thicker, oval, oblong or obovate, entire, obtuse, or sometimes acute at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, 1'-5' long, rarely more than 1 1/2' wide, glabrous when mature, sometimes loosely pubescent when young; stami-nate flowers in compound or simple cymes; pistillate flowers only 1-3 together; fruit oval, or subglobose, 3"-6" long, acid; stone oval or oblong, distinctly flattened and furrowed.
In swamps and along ponds, New Jersey (according to Coulter and Evans); Maryland to Florida and Louisiana. Swamp-hornbeam. Water-gum. April-May.
Nyssa aquatica L. Sp. Pl. 1058. 1753.
Nyssa uniflora Wang. Am. 83. pl. 27. f. 57. 1787.
A large tree, reaching a maximum height of about 100° and trunk diameter of 4o. Leaves slender-petioled, ovate or oval, angular-dentate, or entire, acute, or acuminate at the apex, rounded, often cordate, or sometimes narrowed at the base, downy-pubescent beneath, especially when young, becoming glabrate on both sides, 3'-10' long; staminate flowers in compound capitate clusters; pistillate flower larger, solitary; fruit oval, dark blue when ripe, 8"-15" long; stone narrowly obovate, flattened, spongy, with several sharp longitudinal ridges.
In swamps, southern Virginia to Florida, west to Illinois, Missouri and Texas. Wood soft, tough, light brown, or nearly white; weight per cubic foot 29 lbs. Black or sour gum. Swamp-tupelo or -hornbeam. March-May.
Series 2. Gamopetalae.
Petals partly or wholly united, rarely separate or wanting.
This series is also known as Sympetalae and has been called Monopetalae. The coherence of the petals is sometimes very slight or they are quite separate, as in Clethraceae, Pyrolaceae, some Ericaceae. Primulaceae, Styracaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Oleaceae, Curcurbitaceae and Galax in Dia-pensiaceae. From this condition the coherence varies through all stages to the tubular or funnelform corollas of some Convolvulaceae, Caprifoliaceae and Compositae. In most American species of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) and in Glaux (Primulaceae), there is no corolla.