This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
For the better explanation and easy comprehension of the chemical components of the artificially prepared mineral waters, we have placed the same in seven distinct groups, with explanatory remarks following each group. It must be borne in mind, when applying these methods and directions, not to mix the different groups together, but to add each group separately to the fountain, one after the other, a constant agitation being kept up.
Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Borax.
Remarks to Group I - All these salts are soluble. Mix the required proportions of all the ready prepared solutions of this group in a graduate, and pour the whole into the fountain; or, if desired, dissolve the salts for immediate use in five times their weight of boiling or ten times of cold water, filter and add to fountain. Agitate the fountain and proceed to prepare the next group. The sodium bromide, iodide, fluoride and silicate are usually not kept in stock in form of ready-made solutions, as specially explained. When all other salts of this group are kept in previously prepared solutions, mix them together and dissolve therein these salts; then add all together to fountain.1
Lithium carbonate is only soluble in about 130 parts of cold or boiling water, and usually kept in solution. It belongs to Group I., and its solution is added with those of Group I.; but if all the salts are dissolved for immediate use, the dry carbonate of lithium should then only be dissolved with Group I., when required, in a very trifling quantity. Therefore it is sometimes placed with Group I. However, in most cases we have separated it and placed it by itself as Group II., advising to dissolve and filter it separately, as, in case of dissolving and filtering it with Group I., there is the possibility that it may not get entirely dissolved. When an acid is a component of the artificial combination, and no prepared aqueous solution is used, lithium carbonate is dissolved therein and added to fountain with the iron and manganese salts, Group VI.
All these salts are soluble. Mix or dissolve as directed for Group I. For calcium bromide apply the same rules as for sodium bromide in Group I. Group III. is added to fountain after Group I. and II., and is never mixed with them outside, as by mutual action of the sulphates and carbonates, insoluble salts would be formed, which separate and remain on the filter or in tank. In the fountain these precipitates are soluble by agitation and subsequent carbonating of the liquid.
Group IV. Magnesium sulphate. Alum (potassa or soda alum).
These salts are soluble. Mix the ready-made solutions or dissolve the salts for immediate use as directed for Ammonium chloride is sometimes also found in Group III., and may be dissolved with either group.
Group I. Keep on agitating while adding the mixed solution to the fountain. Group IV. must be added separately from the preceding groups, best after the chlorides, Group III., as also insoluble salts would form if mixed outside the fountain with the other solutions, which are only soluble by agitation and subsequent carbonating.
Group V. Lime carbonate. Magnesia carbonate hydr. Lime sulphate praecip.
The two first named salts are best soluble when freshly precipitated as directed later on. All three are added in their solid state to the fountain, and are dissolved by agitating and carbonating under pressure. Charge up to 80 pounds of pressure while thoroughly agitating the fountain, and blow off the atmospheric air several times and recharge. Group V. needs some time to entirely and completely dissolve, under high pressure only, and the latter should, therefore, be maintained for some hours, occasionally agitating before the water is bottled or another group added. When a lower pressure is required for bottling, blow off the superfluous gas.
Acid hydrochloric (muriatic)
Iron pyrophosphorium. Iron sulphate. Manganese chloride. Manganese sulphate.
All these components are readily soluble. In case neither sulphate nor chloride of iron are constituents of a natural ferruginous mineral water, metallic iron, or, best, commercial reduced iron, should be substituted, and is added in its powdered state to the fountain, and if properly prepared it is also easily soluble; if not, it takes some time and pressure to completely dissolve it.
Lithium carbonate is dissolved in the acids (see also Group II.). The iron and manganese salts are dissolved together for immediate use in five parts of boiling or ten parts of cold water, best in some carbonated water, free of atmospheric air; the solution is quickly filtered, the acids added to it, and the whole mixture is then ready for the fountain. Group VI. is added to the already charged fountain (from where the atmospheric air has been blown off) by means of the solution chamber described on page 114. Where this is not available, the pressure of fountain is so far relieved as to enable the operator to quickly open the cap and pour in the solution of Group VI., close, charge up again, and when cautious, blow off the atmospheric air another time. The iron and manganese salts of the mixture (protoxide of iron and manganese) easily oxidize and cause a turbidity, as explicitly explained already; therefore the atmospheric ait should be carefully blown off under high pressure several times, as generally directed on this subject, before these salts enter into the mixture. If the analysis indicates oxides of iron or manganese, the substitute in practice must be the oxidules. About the use of commercial liquor (sol.) of iron, see later on.
This group comprises either Sodium arseniate, or Sodium sulphide, or Acid hydrosulphuric (hydrogen sulphuretted, hydrogen sulphide).
Remarks to Group VIl - Neither of these components is put into the fountain; however, some make an exception with arseniate of sodium (which is, for instance, a component of the Vichy water), as it is required in so trifling proportions, and mix and add it with Group I.; it is easily soluble. Others gauge the required proportion separately into each bottle. Sodium sulphide is also easily soluble, acid hydrosulphuric is a liquid itself; these components are never added to the fountain. If the water is required for immediate consumption, the necessary amount of the solution is gauged separately into each bottle before bottling; on the other hand, if the water is for storage or shipment, the proportions for each bottle are put up in separate vials. Sulphur waters keep only two or three weeks; they must also be free of atmospheric air. When a batch of 10 gallons is to be made, which will give 80 pint bottles, dissolve the sulphide of sodium in 80 ounces (5 pints) of water, or dilute the acid hydro-sulphuric liquid, until 5 pints are obtained. Then gauge into each bottle one ounce, charge the bottle quickly and cork air tight. It will not be frequently, however, that the carbonator is required to prepare artificial sulphur waters, but to complete the instructions on the artificial combination of mineral waters, these directions are appended.