Water Ices

Water ices are fruit juices sweetened, diluted with water, and frozen.


Frappes are ices made of fruit juice, water, and sugar, frozen to the consistency of mush.


Sherbets are water ices to which have been added a small quantity of dissolved gelatin or beaten whites of eggs. They may be made of one fruit juice or a combination. The juice of one lemon is generally added to each quart of the mixture in order to accentuate the flavor of the other fruit. Sometimes no water is added to the fruit juice.


Sorbets are a kind of frozen punch or water ice to which various kinds of fruit are added.


Granites are water ices to which fruit is added after the freezing.

Ice Creams

Plain ice cream is generally made of thin cream, scalded or not, as desired, sweetened, flavored, and frozen. Whole eggs or yolks of eggs may be used to make a custard which is then frozen. When cream is not plentiful, four parts of milk and one part of double cream may be jellied with junket tablets (page 572) and used. Eggs may be used with skim-milk in place of cream. Arrowroot, cornstarch, or flour is sometimes used in place of some of the eggs. It should be mixed with a little cold milk or cream, and cooked for 10 minutes, being stirred constantly, before being added to the eggs and sugar. If fruit is used, it should be crushed, mixed with the necessary amount of sugar, preferably in the form of sirup, and allowed to stand for 1 hour. It is then added to the partly frozen cream. Strawberries and peaches may be put through a potato ricer. Berries, like raspberries, should be passed through a fine sieve. Fruit flavors are considered by some persons not to harmonize well with eggs, and are therefore not used in custard creams.

For each quart of the mixture to be frozen, any of the following flavorings may be used: 1 1/2 squares Baker's chocolate; 1/4 cup prepared cocoa; 1 tablespoon vanilla; 2 cups orange juice; 2/3 quart can of pineapple.

A smooth, velvety texture is desired in ice creams, rather than a coarse-grained mass of crystals. Texture is influenced by: (1) The amount of butter-fat present. The richer the cream, the smoother is the product. (2) The rapidity of freezing. If frozen rapidly, the cream will be coarse and full of large water crystals. (3) The amount of whipping during freezing, The air thus incorporated produces a light, smooth, cushiony consistency. In properly made ice cream, the water freezes in very fine crystals interspersed with minute bubbles of air. It should contain from 33 to 40 per cent of air. (4) The age of the cream. Cream fresh from the separator or pasteurizer produces a coarse-grained ice cream. Cream that is 12 hours old, held at 32-35° F., makes a smooth mixture when frozen.

* For further information on experiments in freezing ice cream, see Bull. 155, Vt. Exp. Sta.

Frozen Puddings

Frozen puddings are ice creams made of thin cream or thin cream and egg-yolks, highly flavored and containing many preserved fruits and nuts. They are generally molded in melon molds, lined with lady-fingers.


A mousse may be made in either of two ways: (1) heavy cream may be beaten until stiff, drained, sweetened, and flavored; or (2) the whip from thin cream may be folded into a mixture stiffened with gelatin. Mousses are placed in molds, and packed for 3 hours in equal parts of ice and salt. Sherbets are frequently combined with them either as the lining of the mold or as a layer of filling.

Parfaits, biscuits, and souffles.

For a parfait, biscuit, or souffle, yolks of eggs are cooked with sirup to a thick smooth cream. The mixture is then flavored and beaten until it is cold and light, and mixed with drained whipped cream. It is then poured into a mold and packed in ice and salt for 3 or 4 hours according to the size of the mold. Parfaits are not solid like custard ice creams; they have a spongy texture. They should not be frozen too hard.

Biscuits take their name from their size, being in reality parfaits frozen in individual forms.

Souffles are parfaits reinforced with gelatin and a larger proportion of liquid and frozen in souffle dishes.


(1) Put the ice in a strong cloth or bag, and with a wooden mallet pound it fairly fine. The finer the ice, the more quickly will the mixture freeze. Snow may be used instead of ice. (2) Use coarse salt and ice in the proportion of: 1 part of salt to 1 part of ice, for mousse and parfait; 1 part of salt to from 1 to 3 parts of ice for frappe and ice; 1 part of salt to from 1 to 15 parts of ice for ice cream. The larger the proportion of ice to salt, the slower will be the freezing and the finer the grain. Fine salt dissolves more readily than coarse, and consequently produces a lower temperature more quickly; but it tends to form crusts and bridges which prevent the ice from settling in place and fitting around the freezer. (3) Fill the can two-thirds full. (4) Place the can, which has been washed with soap and water scalded, and cooled, in the freezer, and adjust the crank. Turn the crank to see that it is in place. (5) Place the freezer in a dishpan, and set the dishpan on a towel to keep it from slipping and to deaden the sound. Spread papers on the floor to protect it from ice and salt that may be dropped. (6) Fill the freezer half full of ice, and add a layer of salt, using a long-handled spoon. Add more ice and more salt in layers, placing salt near the top so that on dissolving it may trickle over the ice. If snow is used, pour in 1 cup of water after the freezer is packed. (7) Turn the crank until the mixture is stiff. In freezing water ices it is considered advisable by some persons to turn the crank for 5 minutes, to stop for 5 minutes, to turn it again for 5 minutes, and to continue in this way until the freezing is completed. Do not draw off the salt water while freezing the mixture unless the salt water stands so high that there is danger of its getting in the can.


(1) When the mixture is frozen, take off the crank; (2) wipe the lid of the can carefully, and make sure that the ice and salt are well below the lid; (3) lift off the lid and take out the paddle; (4) fruit or whipped cream should be added at this time if they are to be used; (5) with a spoon or spatula, pack down the cream, a potato-masher being used to make the mass compact; (6) replace the lid and put a cork in the hole; (7) draw off the water; (8) pack the can as described for freezing; (9) cover the freezer with a heavy cloth, and let it stand from 1 to 3 hours before using if possible, to develop the flavor; (10) look at it occasionally to see that the water does not rise above the opening. If properly watched and repacked, the cream can be kept for any reasonable length of time.