Approximate Amounts Of Sugar For Various Common Dishes

Ice creams - 2 to 4 tablespoons to 1 cup mixture. Custards (not frozen) - 1 to 2 tablespoons to 1 cup milk. Cakes - One-half as much sugar as flour. In chocolate cakes, three-quarters as much sugar as flour. Meringues - 1 to 5 tablespoons to 1 egg white. Frostings - 1 to 3 cups to 1 egg white. Breads - 1 tablespoon or less to 1 cup flour, if any is used. Muffins - 2 tablespoons or less to 1 cup flour, if any is used.

Caramel

1 cup granulated sugar 1 cup boiling water

Put the sugar into a pan and melt slowly over direct heat. Cook until dark brown, being careful not to scorch. Add the hot water and cook slowly until a thick sirup is formed. (Be sure that the water is hot. Cold water will make the hot sugar spatter.) This will keep indefinitely in a covered glass fruit jar and is a popular flavoring for desserts, soups, meat sauces and confectionery.

Useful Facts About Fats

The cooking and table fats available for use in the modern household range from liquid oils to hard fats. The source may be vegetable, meat, milk or a combination of these.

Shortening

The term shortening includes fat of any kind that is used in pastry, doughs, and batters. Any clean, sweet fat may be used. The best known and most commonly used are butter, solid vegetable fats, margarine, salad and cooking oil, lard and drippings. In general they may be used interchangeably for "shortening" in a recipe, remembering the difference in flavor, and that since some contain more water than others more fat is needed to give the same shortening quality.

How To Care For Fats

Since the four factors that are instrumental in making fat rancid are light, moisture, air and warmth, all fats should be kept in a dark, dry, cool place and as far as possible away from air.

Oils, particularly, are affected by air. If oil is bought in quantity and used a little at a time, it should be transferred from the large container to small ones. Each container should be filled completely full to exclude air, and should be sealed or stoppered. The containers should be kept in a dry, cool place, but not so cold that the contents will congeal. The top shelf of the refrigerator is usually satisfactory.

Utensils For Frying

1. A deep iron bowl or scotch kettle. The bowl has one advantage over the flat-bottomed kettle; the sediment from food sinks into the curve of the bowl and does not adhere to food.

2. A wire basket that fits loosely into the kettle. This is to lift food into and out of the kettle. A skimmer will do this but it is not so convenient.

3. A long-handled spoon or fork to hold the basket out of the fat while the food is draining.

4. A pan large enough to hold the basket while it is being emptied or filled.

5. A large pan lined with soft paper on which to drain the food that has been fried.

6. A thermometer for testing the temperature of the fat.

Eggs Thicken Liquids, Making Custards

The value of eggs in custard making is due to the fact that raw eggs are fluid and readily mix with water or milk. When the mixture containing the egg is heated, the particles of egg become solid and the liquid is thus thickened.