This section is from the book "The American Woman's Cook Book", by Ruth Berolzheimer. Also available from Amazon: The Domestic Arts Edition of the American Woman's Cook Book.
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2 egg-whites to 1 cup sugar (stiff ball stage) ......................
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3 egg-whites to 1 cup sugar (hard ball stage) ......................
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Sugars are useful in cooking (1) because of their flavor, or the effect they have in modifying or intensifying other flavors; (2) because of their texture, or the changes they make in the texture of other foods; (3) because they help in preserving other foods, especially fruits.
Sugars Not Equally Sweet - Maple sugar, brown sugar and molasses, weight for weight with white sugar, are a little less sweet than white sugar. Corn sirup or glucose, weight for weight with white sugar, is only about three-fifths as sweet as white sugar and may be used to reduce the sweetness of white sugar. Many persons prefer this modified sweetness.
Some Sugars Contain Special Flavors, for example: maple sugar, brown sugar molasses, honey.
Sugar Brings out or Modifies Natural Flavors - It makes bitter chocolate and fruit acids more mellow and agreeable in flavor. It brings out flavor in bland foods like cereals, breads, milk and some mild-flavored vegetables.
In Breads, used in right proportions, sugar helps to make them light. Too much sugar makes bread coarse in texture.
With Fruit Juices, used in right proportions, makes fruit-juice jelly. Too much sugar makes jelly "wine off" and makes it soft and sticky in texture. Too little sugar necessitates overcooking, impairs flavor and gives a tough texture.
In Beaten Egg White, sugar helps the egg to hold air and remain stiff. Too much sugar makes the egg white flatten out and settle.