White soup stock is made from veal or chicken, seasoned with onion, celery salt, and white pepper, avoiding anything which will give it color. White soups are thickened with rice, cornstarch, flour, eggs, or the white meat of chicken chopped fine, and are made still richer by milk or cream.
4 pounds knuckle of veal. 3 quarts cold water.
1 even tablespoonful salt. 6 peppercorns.
2 small onions. 2 stalks celery.
1 pint milk.
1 tablespoonful butter.
1 heaping tablespoonful flour.
1 teaspoonful salt.
1 saltspoonful celery salt.
½ saltspoonful white pepper.
Wipe and cut the veal into small pieces. Put it into the kettle with the cold water. Heat slowly and skim, because we do not wish the soup colored. Add the salt, peppercorns, onions, and celery. Simmer five hours, strain, and when cool remove the fat. There should be about three pints of stock. When ready to use it, put the stock on to boil, and the milk into the double boiler. Thicken the stock with one tablespoonful of butter and one heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch, cooked together. Add the boiling milk, the salt, and pepper. Beat two eggs until light, put them in the tureen, and strain the boiling soup over them. Many people prefer to use the yolks of the eggs only. This makes a yellow soup. Others vary it by boiling the eggs hard and rubbing the yolks through a gravy strainer after the soup is in the tureen.
This veal stock may be clarified with the white of an egg, if you wish it transparent. But it is better with the milk or cream, and should be highly seasoned, and reduced one half by boiling, as when made from veal alone it is insipid. Serve with croutons.
3 or 4 pounds fowl. 3 quarts cold water. 1 tablespoonful salt. 6 peppercorns.
1 tablespoonful chopped onion.
2 tablespoonfuls chopped celery.
1 pint cream. 1 tablespoonful butter. 1 tablespoonful cornstarch. 1 teaspoonful salt.
1 saltspoonful white pepper.
Singe, clean, and wipe the fowl. Cut off the legs and wings, and disjoint the body. Put it on to boil in cold water. Let it come to a boil quickly, because we wish to use the meat as well as the water, and skim thoroughly. The meat may be removed when tender, and the bones put on to boil again. (Use the meat for croquettes or other made dishes.) Add the salt and vegetables. Simmer until reduced one half. Strain, and when cool remove the fat. For one quart of stock allow one pint of cream or milk. If cream, use a little less flour for thickening. Boil the stock; add the butter and flour, cooked together, and the seasoning. Strain it over the eggs, stirring as you pour, or the eggs will curdle. By substituting, for the eggs in this white soup, the white meat of the chicken, chopped fine and rubbed to a powder, we have Potage a la Heine, which many think too elaborate for any but a professional cook to undertake. The breast of a roast chicken may be used. Add it to the boiling stock, then thicken it with the flour and butter. Add the cream, and if not perfectly smooth, strain into the tureen. It should be quite thick like cream. Whole rice is sometimes served with clear chicken soup. If used as a thickening, boil the rice until soft enough to rub through a strainer. Add it to the chicken liquor, and unite them with butter and flour cooked together.
The liquor in which a fowl or chicken has been boiled, when not wanted for any other purpose, should be saved for white soup. If the vegetables and spices are not boiled with the fowl, fry them five minutes without burning, add them to the stock, and simmer fifteen minutes.
Strain before serving. Chicken stock clarified makes a pale straw-colored, transparent soup.