A fowl and a turkey require the same management at the fire, only the latter will take longer time. Let them be carefully picked, break the breastbone (to make them look plump,) and thoroughly singe them with a sheet of clean writing paper. Prepare a nice brisk fire for them. Make stuffing according to 269; stuff them under the breast where the craw was taken out; and make some into balls, and boil or fry them, and lay them round the dish; they are handy to help, and you can reserve some of the inside stuffing to eat with the cold turkey, or to enrich a hash. Score the gizzard; dip it in the yolk of an egg", or melted butter, and sprinkle it with salt and a few grains of cayenne; put it under one pinion, and the liver under the other; cover the liver with buttered paper, to prevent it getting hardened or burnt. When you first put your turkey down to roast, dredge it with flour, then put about an ounce of butter into a basting ladle, and as it melts baste the bird. Keep it at a distance from the fire for the first half hour that it may warm gradually, then put it nearer, and when it is plumped up, and the steam draws towards the fire, it is nearly done enough; then dredge it lightly with flour, and put a bit of butter into your basting ladle, and as it melts baste the turkey with it; this will raise a finer froth than can be produced by using the fat out of the pan. A very large turkey will require about three hours to roast it thoroughly; a middling sized one, of eight or ten pounds, about two hours; a small one may be done in an hour and a half. Turkey poults are of various sizes, and will take about an hour and a half. Fried pork sausages are a very savoury accompaniment to either roasted or boiled turkey. Sausage meat is sometimes used as a stuffing, instead of the ordinary force meat. If you wish a turkey, especially a very large one, to be tender, never dress it till at least four or five days (in cold weather, eight or ten) after it has been killed, unless it be dressed immediately after killing, before the flesh is cold; be very careful not to let it freeze. Hen turkeys are preferable to cocks for whiteness and tenderness, and the small tender ones, with black legs, are most esteemed. Send up with them oyster, egg, and plenty of gravy sauce.

249. Capons or Fowls must be killed a couple of days in moderate, and more in cold, weather, before they are dressed, unless dressed immediately they are killed, or they will eat tough: a good criterion of the ripeness of poultry for the spit, is the ease with which you can pull out the leathers; when a fowl is plucked, leave a few to help you to ascertain this. They are managed exactly in the same manner, and sent up with the same sauces, as a turkey, only they require pro-portionably less time at the fire - a full-grown five-toed fowl about an hour and a quarter; a moderate sized one, an hour; a chicken, from thirty to forty minutes. Have also pork sausages fried, as they are in general a favourite accompaniment, or turkey stuffing; see Force meats, 278; put in plenty of it, so as to plump out the fowl, which must be tied closely (both at the neck and rump,) to keep in the stuffing; some cooks put the liver of the fowl into this force meat, and others mince it and pound it, and rub up with flour and melted butter. When the bird is stuffed and trussed, score the gizzard nicely; dip it into melted butter; let it drain, and then season it with cayenne and salt; put it under one pinion, and the liver under the other; to prevent their getting hardened or scorched, cover them with double paper buttered. Take care that your roasted poultry be well browned; it is as indispensable that roasted poultry should have a rich brown complexion, as that boiled poultry should have a delicate white one.

For sauces, see 111; or liver and parsley, and those ordered in the last receipt.