This section is from the book "The Steward's Handbook And Guide To Party Catering", by Jessup Whitehead. Also available from Amazon: Larousse Gastronomique.
Dutch grappe madder, 2 oz., tied in a cloth and beaten in a mortar, with water, 4 pts.; boiled; alum and oil of tartar added, let settle, wash the sediment, dry it, dissolve in alcohol.
(1)-Indigo in warm water for some uses; for candy, indigo pounded fine is dissolved in gin or alcohol. (2)-Prussian or Antwerp blue ground fine and mixed with water. Yellow Turmeric or saffron dissolved in water or alcohol; tincture of saffron is used for coloring ices and syrups. Barberry root with alum and cream tartar makes a yellow for candies.
(1) Fustic, 1 oz.; turmeric, 1/4 oz.; alum and cream tartar each 2 drachms, water, 1/2 pt.; boiled; tartar added first, alum later. This makes bright yellow; indigo dissolved in alcohol added to make green. (2)-Green is made by-boiling spinach 1 minute, then squeezing out the juice by twisting in strong towel; parsley answers the same purpose; both may be used to make a lighter green by pounding them raw in a marble mortar and not boiling.
Burnt sugar or caramel; the sugar is burnt till it smokes and looks like tar, water added and boiled. Many shades in soups and jellies, from yellow to orange, light and dark brown, and port wine color and purple, are obtained with caramel and its admixture with cochineal. See aniline, also annato.