A. Prepare Muffins.

Use one-fourth of one of the following proportions:

Liquid (Milk)

Flour

Egg

Fat (Butter)

Sugar

Salt

Baking Powder

1.

1 c.

2 c.

1

1

1 tbsp.

1/2 tsp.

?

2.

1 c.

2 c.

1

2

1 tbsp.

1/2 tsp.

?

3.

1 c.

2 c.

1

2

2 tbsp.

1/2 tsp.

?

What is the effect of fat as shown in (1) and (2)? Of sugar as shown by (2) and (3)?

B. Class Experiment. Weight of Flours.

Weigh a cup of each of the following:

1. Bread flour sifted once.

2. Whole wheat or graham flour. (Sift, but replace the bran.)

3. Corn meal.

4. Rye flour.

C. Prepare Muffins. Follow the proportion given in (A 2), but use only one-half of the amount of flour. Use a weight of one of the other flours equal to the weight of the omitted flour.

Kinds Of Flour

More than one kind of flour is manufactured from wheat. The preparation of bread flour has already been described, and it will be remembered that in its manufacture all of the bran coatings are removed. When none of these outside layers is removed, but all are ground up together, true graham flour is produced. This flour was named after an American minister, Dr. Sylvester Graham, who invented the process. He advocated this, because of the supposed wastefulness of throwing away so much nutriment as chemical analysis showed remained in the discarded bran. Later, it was discovered that this nutriment, largely protein, was most abundant in the aleurone or inner layer of the bran. Therefore, it was argued, the outer coats could be discarded and only the inner layer ground with the kernel, producing a flour which would be less coarse, but would preserve the whole nutriment of the wheat. Accordingly, this received the somewhat misleading name of whole wheat flour, a name which would really much more accurately describe graham flour. For a while after this flour was put on the market, much was to be heard about the superior nutritive value of whole wheat bread, compared with bread made from white flour. Later work has shown that the cells containing the protein in the aleurone layer are so tough that few of them are broken in the grinding, and so the protein present is not digested easily. Moreover, the whole mass passes so much more rapidly through the digestive tract that experiment shows that rather less nutriment is actually absorbed from bread made from the coarser varieties of flour. These breads may have their place in the diet, however, because they contain more salts, and it is probably due to these that they possess their laxative effect.

Rye is the only flour besides wheat flour which contains sufficient gluten to make risen bread, and rye bread is much more moist and dense than white bread. Nearly all recipes, even for graham and whole wheat breads, call for the addition of some bread flour. In making corn-meal muffins, for example, from one-third to two-thirds of the flour as given in an ordinary recipe for muffins may be substituted with an equal weight of corn meal. The more flour used in proportion to the corn meal, the lighter the muffins, but, of course, there is also less and less flavor of corn meal.

Corn meal is made from different varieties of corn giving a white or a yellow meal. Southerners generally use white corn meal, and northerners yellow, each claiming a superiority for their product. There is an undoubted difference in flavor, but which is better is a matter of taste each individual must settle for himself.

Questions

1. Describe the wheat kernel.

2. How many pounds are there in a barrel of flour ?

3. What does flour cost per pound ? Per barrel?

4. Is there any advantage in buying a barrel of flour instead of a quarter-barrel sack?

5. What care should be taken in storing flour?

6. How does the nutritive value of a pound of flour compare with that of a pound of cornstarch? Of corn meal? Of beef (the round)? Compare the cost of a hundred-calorie portion of each, as well as the cost per pound.

7. How many muffins of average size can you make from two cups of flour?