This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The discussion on Strawberries brought out some pretty severe remarks, and very contradictory in their tenor - showing more and more that this fruit is one of which varieties are specially suited to localities and soils rather than to any one mode of cultivation.
Mr. William Saunders, of the Agricultural Department, Washington, opened the Grape subject by a paper supporting his previous records relative to mildew, and its prevention by means of shelter of board copings, or of growing broad-leaved, strong kinds, and training them on the upper wires as a protection to the weaker sorts. He takes the ground that any grape will prove hardy the vine of which has been grown healthfully and free from mildew. The paper of Mr. Saunders was followed by one from A. Fendler, of St. Louis County, Mo., in which the ground is taken that the rot and other diseases of the vine are caused more from a want of steady moisture at the roots than from any great or rapid radiation of heat, or from fungoid growth, the latter of which he regards as the result of putrescent matter in the vine furnishing food and the elements of its growth. This paper is well written, and as it advances comparatively new thoughts, should be read by every grape-glower. After the readings, discussion on the varieties of the Grape came in order, and the Iona being called up, received very little favor from any but Messrs. Griffith and Bateham, neither of whom had ever fruited it.
Mr. Hoag, however, had fruited it at Lockport, N. Y., and spoke in its favor.
Ives' Seedling obtained favor as a healthy vine, good cropper, productive for wine, and was by Mr. Meehan regarded as good as the Concord for table use. Mr. Husman had found it slow in coming into bearing.
Mr. Husman said he made six hundred gallons per acre of wine from this grape - had made as much as twelve hundred; it bears at three years old, and the older it gets the better it becomes. The Arkansas, the Cynthiana, and the Virginia are the only three varieties that he had ever seen that never rotted. He had seen a whole vineyard killed, but it was from bad management. He said that some kinds of grapes can be raised on any soil we have, but it is useless to force certain kinds upon unfavorable soils. We should study our soils, as they do in Europe, and the man who is not willing to take that trouble had better stop grape-raising. He was in favor of each locality cultivating the varieties suited to it.
Mr. Foster, of Iowa, said a rich corn soil was not good for most varieties of grapes; but a wheat soil was favorable. The Concord would grow anywhere, but the Catawba and Diana were injured by rich soils.
The Creveling, Rogers' Nos. 3, 4, 9, and 19 were spoken of as doing well in almost all locations where tried; while No. 1 was regarded by Mr. Husman as valuable in Missouri for wine. No. 15 mildews at Hermann, but is very fine at Alton, in Illinois, Cleveland, Ohio, and several other sections.
Salem was reported on favorably by Messrs. Requia, Saunders, Spalding, and others, and unfavorably by Mr. Husman.
Maxatawney and Martha were both reported favorably upon by Mr. Husman, who said that, although the bunches of Martha were small, yet it makes a good wine.
The "Adirondack" was poor in Pittsburg, tender in St. Louis, a poor grower at Hermann and Hannibal; yet did exceedingly well at Alton; well at Lockport, N. Y.; well in the District of Columbia, and in sundry other localities.
The "Cynthiana" was highly praised by Mr. Husman. It makes a delicate wine of fine flavor, but not medicinal. The berry never rots at Hermann.
Dr. Spalding said that wine experts in Europe had preferred the Norton's Virginia over many of their own native vines, but had classed our Cynthiana still higher, and said it would "pay" us to export those kinds to Europe.
The accompanying representation of the Cynthiana was made from a cluster grown by Mr. George Husman, and is a fair representation of the grape.
In general appearance the bunch is like Norton's Virginia, perhaps not quite as compact, and with rather longer peduncles; and the inside of the berry is not as deep colored, so that the wine is lighter in appearance, of a more sprightly character, and possessing pot quite as much body. Apparently the fruit will give more juice to the pound than Norton's Virginia, while the vine is equally hardy and vigorous, with large foliage free from disease.
Oh, what a bother! I have now about sixty varieties, over which I am daily looking for the superior excellence said by the originators to be wrapped therein, according to name. Among all the sorts, Wilson is the first to bloom; and I have always been able to gather a little fruit from it as early as from the earliest sorts; but its main crop of course we all know is not of the earliest. I do hope the next meeting of the American Pomological Society will weed out the "suckers" from this class of fruit.
One of Dr. Brinckle'a seedlings, of medium size, conical form, and dark crimson color, productive, P.
Very large, roundish depressed, dark scarlet, showy, coarse, very productive, profitable for market, p.
This ancient and very distinct variety is identical with the "Hudson of Cincinnati." The fruit is of large size, pointed conical form, dark scarlet or crimson when fully ripe, and is then of excellent flavor. The berries redden some days before maturity, and are in consequence often plucked prematurely, and the fruit from this circumstance has been deemed inferior in sweetness and quality. The berries have the peculiarity of remaining green at the extreme point until they attain perfect maturity, when that becomes red also. This is one of the few varieties of which we possess plants of both sexes, and they have been grown jointly at these nurseries for more than forty years. It appears that at Philadelphia they possessed only the pistillate variety, and that it alone was transmitted to Cincinnati many years since, which serves to account for all the Ohio plants being of that sex. It is highly productive, and perhaps none other will yield a larger crop, but it is indispensable that its own male, or some other, should be connected as fertilizer. It is entirely distinct from the "Hudson's Bay" of the London Horticultural Society, which is one of the Scarlets, whereas this is of the Pine family.
In my investigations I have found it to be identical with a variety called "Mulberry" and it may be identical with the variety so named in the Catalogue of the London Horticultural Society. About thirty-five years ago it was generally called "Red Chili," and I think it was imported from England by my lather, the late Wm. Prince, under that name, but he finding it distinct from the Chili family, changed that name to the present one. h and p.
Medium size, light scarlet, handsome, high, spicy flavor, not a full bearer, and the plant less vigorous than many other varieties, p.
Rather large, rounded or short cone, scarlet, showy, moderate flavor, rather soft for market, ripens early, very productive, the most valuable of Bran's varieties, p.
* Continued from the April number.
Rather large, conical, dark scarlet, showy, medium quality, acid, good for preserves, very productive. p.
Large, dark scarlet, inferior flavor, very productive. p The four proceeding varieties "were originated by Mr. John Burr, of Columbus, Ohio.
Rather large, light scarlet, fine flavor, productive.
Large, broad rounded, light orange scarlet, peculiar color, beautiful, early, productive, inferior flavor, but merits culture for its other qualities. It is one of a distinct family or species, natives of our western prairies.
Large, rounded or obovate, crimson, too acid until fully ripe, then of good flavor, very productive. It has been much overrated, when there are so many others preferable to it. p.
A seedling originated by Dr. Brinckle, of Philadelphia: the fruit round, averaging larger than Hovey's Seedling, but inferior to that in flavor, very productive, a showy fruit of little value. p.
Rather large, with a neck, bright crimson, showy, moderate flavor, fruit on long stems, productive, growth vigorous.
Large, roundish, light scarlet, good flavor, very productive, estimable. p.
Medium size, conical, light scarlet, good flavor,rather acid. p.
Large, rounded, orange, scarlet, rather acid, very productive, late. p.
Rather large, conical, bright scarlet, productive. This and the four preceeding varieties were originated by Messrs. Elwanger & Barry, of Rochester.
Of vigorous growth, fruit very large, rounded, dark crimson, juicy, very good flavor, fine color, very productive. p.
A seedling from the Iowa, and bears much affinity to its parent in color and size: large, bright scarlet, very handsome, productive, but not high flavored. p.
Large, beautiful, productive, moderate flavor and medium quality. p.
Fair size, rounded, scarlet, sweet, very fine flavor, productive, of vigorous growth.
Large, rounded, crimson, very juicy and good, but not equal to McAvoy's Superior. p.
Secondary size, conical, crimson, juicy, not sweet, and but little flavor, strong fruit stems, ripens gradually, very productive. It is of vigor-ous growth, and assimulates greatly to the old Hudson, of which it is doubtless a seedling. p.
Fair size, dark red, fine flavor, productive.
Moderate size, scarlet, same form and flavor as the old Hudson, productive. p.
Found by the writer on one of the loftiest volcanic mount.