This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
To preserve the frequent occurrence of open lawns, in order to relieve and heighten the effect of the plantings; neglect of this will destroy-all that the plan proposes to accomplish.
[Mr. Saunders has most successfully treated this level spot, having been selected to lay it out by the councils of Philadelphia, and having the charge of the entire details. He gives in the above paper very satisfactory reasons for what he has done; a few years will show that he has done it judiciously and artistically. Comparatively this is a small park. It was presented by a few gentlemen to Philadelphia, and will become a model for grounds of similar character. Parks are to be great features of the neighborhoods of our cities and towns, and here is one of the best examples of planting to follow. - Ed].
I can throw but very little light on the subject. The mildewing of the foliage is one of the principal causes. But I am utterly in the dark as regards the rot. The foliage of the Hartford, Franklin, Clinton, Virginia Norton's, and Concord, is never affected by the mildew, and all, save the Concord, free from rot. The most perfect fruit is the Franklin. You might cut a ton of them without finding a faulty berry.
We confess our preference for early autumn planting, but if we had a hundred or more apple or pear trees to plant, and the choice came between late autumn or spring, we should choose the late autumn. In autumn planting, the roots have time to heal or callus during winter, the earth gets well settled; and if the earth is well banked up around its base, the tree will be free of water at the root, and will not be swayed by the winter winds, or any more affected than when standing heeled in, as trees are often left to pass the winter preparatory to spring planting.
Mr. F. W. Lemosy, writing not long since from Portsmouth, Va., says: "My Albany Seedling Strawberry it full of green fruit, and many berries large and fully ripe. Is it customary for it to bear at this season 1" Last fall we had fruit on the Wilson, Burr's New Pine, Scott's Seedling, and some others; and in October we had a nice plate of the Crimson Cone at a friend's in New Jersey. We have often had a second crop from Burr's New Pine and the Boston Pine. We believe it was no very uncommon thing for some varieties of the strawberry to produce a second crop last fall.
Mr. Harman gives his experience with a house 102 feet in length for growing late grapes. He states that in December and January the Alicanthe surpassed all others for form and appearance; but that the race for late keeping seems to be between Lady Downes and Barbarossa [Gros Guillaume]. Last year he cut the last of Lady Downes on the 18th of March.
Do nothing to excite late growths in your orchard or ornamental trees. Avoid digging deep or plowing among or around them. If they are standing singly, then just loosen the surface soil with hoe or rake and lay on mulch. If in rows or cultivated orchard, run the cultivator among them just so as to keep the surface, loose and clean of weeds, but in no case deep enough to break roots and induce renewal of growth. Late growth almost always results in enfeebled condition of the tree and renders it less capable of enduring extremes of winter.