Casta'Nea Denta'Ta, Chestnut. The dried leaves, collected Sept.-Oct., while still green, official 1870-1900; N. America, W. Asia, S. Europe. Stately tree, 24-30 M. (80-100°) high; wood light, durable; flowers in 3's, monoecious - staminate and pistillate, involucre 4-lobed, becoming prickly; fruit, 4-valved involucre enclosing 1-3 1-seeded nuts. Leaves 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, lanceolate, acuminate, mucronate, petiolate, feather-veined, sinuate-serrate, dark green above, smooth, odor slight; taste astringent; contains tannin 9 p. c, resin, fat, gum, albumin, ash 6 p. c; fruit contains starch 35 p. c, fat 2 p. c, proteids 3-4 p. c., sugar 1-2 p. c; solvents: boiling water, alcohol partially. Tonic, mild sedative, astringent; whooping-cough, controlling paroxysms, dysentery; wood resists exposure greatly, nuts a delicacy, thoroughly edible. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract, xv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)).
9. C. (Fagus) pu'mila, Castanea (Chinquapin). - The bark, official 1820-1860; Delaware-Mississippi. Shrub or small tree, 6-15 M. (20-50°) high, 25-37.5 Cm. (10-15') thick, largest being South; leaves differ from chestnut in having underside white, downy; bark grayish, brownish inside; fruit rounded, conical, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, 9 Mm. (3/8') broad at base, same constituents and taste as chestnuts; bark contains tannin, resin, extractive. Used as tonic, astringent for intermittents.
Fa'Gus America'Na (Ferrugin'Ea), American Beech. Tree, 22.5 - 30 M. (75-100°) high; bark and leaves used, the latter oblong-ovate, taper pointed, dentate, petioles and midrib soon (nearly) naked, prickles of fruit recurved or spreading; astringent, tonic.