1. Chinese Nutgalls (Rhus Semiala'Ta) By Sting Of A'Phis' S(Ch)Inen'Sis

Chinese Nutgalls (Rhus Semiala'Ta) By Sting Of A'Phis' S(Ch)Inen'Sis. Galls 4-5 Cm. (1 3/5 - 2') long, ovate, irregular, tuberculate, grayish-downy, hollow; shell thin, fragile, containing many insect-remains.

2. Japanese Nutgalls (R. semialata or R. japon'ica) resemble Chinese. - The tannic acid of these differs from that of official galls.

3. Vallonea, Acorn Cups of many Quercus species (Q. Robur, Q. Vallo'nea, Q. AE'gilops), 2.5 Cm. (1') in diameter, with thick, spreading scales, strongly astringent taste, largely used in tanning.

4. Tamarisk Galls (Tam'arix articula'ta (orienta'lis), T. africa'na. T. gal'lica). - Asia, Africa, 3-12 Mm. (1/8-1/2') thick, subglobular, knotty, contain tannin 40-50 p. c.

5. American Nutgalls (Q. alba, Q. virginiana (virens), Q. lobata). first poor in tannin; second (Texas) like Aleppo, but not tuberculate, tannin 40 p. c; third (California), 5 Cm. (2') thick, glossy, orange-brown, rich in tannin.

Allied Plants:

1. Quer'Cus Al'Ba, Quercus, White (Tanner's) Oak

Quer'Cus Al'Ba, Quercus, White (Tanner's) Oak. The dried bark, collected from trunks or branches 12-25 years of age, deprived of periderm, official 1820-1910; N. America. Stately tree 18-25 M, (60-80°) high, 1-2.5 M. (3 8°) thick, branched; leaves large, 4-6-lobed, petiolate, smooth, light green, glaucous with prominent veins beneath, brownish when dry; flowers monoecious - staminate, catkins;

Fig. 85.   Quercus alba: a, staminate catkins; 6, magnified staminate flower; c, pistillate flower with stigmas magnified; d, acorn in embryo; e, section of young acorn; /, cotyledon with radicle.

Fig. 85. - Quercus alba: a, staminate catkins; 6, magnified staminate flower; c, pistillate flower with stigmas magnified; d, acorn in embryo; e, section of young acorn; /, cotyledon with radicle.

pistillate, followed by 1-seeded ovoid fruit (nut, acorn), base in cupule. Bark, flat pieces, 2-10 Mm. (1/12-2/5') thick, light brown, rough-fibrous, fracture uneven, coarsely fibrous; odor distinct; taste strongly astringent; does not tinge saliva yellow when chewed; solvents: alcohol, water; contains tannin 6-11 p. c., oak-red, quercin, resin, fat, quercite. Astringent, tonic, haemostatic, similar to tannin; diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera infantum, haemoptysis, hemorrhages, . leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, intermittents, phthisis, relaxed parts, ulcers; gargle - prolapsed uvula, etc.; poultice - gangrene, etc.; powder - tooth powders and washes; tanning leather; wood durable, valuable. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 (Gm.); decoction,5 p. c., ℥ss-l (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)); extract, gr. 2-10 (.2-6 Gm.); fluidextract (alcohol 50, water 40, glycerin 10), xv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

2. Q. veluti'na (coccin'ea var. tincto'ria), Black (Scarlet) Oak (Quercitron) . - The (inner) bark, official 1820-1880. Trees 24-30 M.

Fig. 86.   Quercus alba: bark, cross section, magnified 10 diam.; p, cork; m, outer bark;i, inner bark; sz, group of stone cells; bb, bast fibre; n, longitudinal fibre.

Fig. 86. - Quercus alba: bark, cross-section, magnified 10 diam.; p, cork; m, outer bark;i, inner bark; sz, group of stone cells; bb, bast-fibre; n, longitudinal fibre.

(80-100°) high, 1-1.2 M. (3-4°) thick, leaves oblong, lobed, 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, mucronate; fruit, acorns, 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') long, 12 Mm. (J') thick, cupule thick, shallow; bark resembles the preceding, only reddish-brown, gives saliva brownish-yellow color; contains tannin 6-12 p. c, quercitrin (red-brown coloring matter, dyeing yellow wool, silks, etc.), C36H38O20, with diluted acids yields isodulcite, C6H14O6, and yellow quercetin, C24H16O11. In the South barks of Q. nigra and Q. digitata (falcata), used for this, although these have a much coarser texture and a deep reddish-brown color.

3. Q. Ro'bur, Common European or English Oak. - Tall tree, 24-30 M. (80-100°) high, having 3 forms: (a) Q. pubes'cens (old leaves hairy); (6) Q. peduncula'ta (leaves smooth, pistillate flowers, and fruit on peduncles; (c) Q. sessiliflo'ra (leaves smooth, flowers and fruit sessile, petioles long). These have many varieties, all resembling Q. alba.

4. Q. digita'ta (jalca'ta, L. falcatus - i. e., leaf-lobes scythe-shaped), Spanish or Red

Fig. 87.   Castanea dentata.

Fig. 87. - Castanea dentata.

Fig. 88.   Castanea: leaf, one half natural size.

Fig. 88. - Castanea: leaf, one-half natural size.

Spanish Oak. - Maryland, Florida. Tree 18-21 M. (60-70°) high, leaves grayish, 3-5-lobed, finger- or scythe-shaped. Bark rich in tannin, wood reddish, coarse-grained; used in tanning, sometimes called quercitron.

5. Q. marylan'dica (ni'gra, ferrugin'ea), Black, Barren, or Iron Oak {Blackjack). - Southern States. Tree 9-12 M. (30-40°) high, leaves cuneate, 3-5-lobed, rusty, pubescent beneath, shining above. Of little value.

6. Q. virginia'na (ri'rens, L. vireo, green, fresh, flourishing), Live Oak. - Maryland, Florida. Tree 12-18 M. (40-60°) high. Bark rich in tannin, wood fine-grained; used in shipbuilding.

7. Q. su'ber, Cork Oak, Alcornoque (Savanna Bark). - Mediterranean Basin, S, United States. Small tree, 9-15 M. (30-50°) high, leaves toothed, ovate; bark with an elastic suberous layer 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') thick, collected every 8-10 years, and constitutes our cork of commerce. When finely powdered, sold as suberin for absorbent purposes, which name is applied to one of its constituents (fat). There are about 80 species of Quercus, ranging from shrubs to trees; one-half of these grow in the United States, and may, with their acorns, be used similarly. Acorns sometimes are roasted = semen quercus tostum, and used as a substitute for coffee; contain fixed oil, starch, citric acid, uncrystallized and quercite sugars.