Strychninae Nitras, Strychnine Nitrate, C21H22N2O2.HNO3, official. - (Syn., Strych. Nit.; Fr. Azotate (Nitrate) de Strychnine; Gei.
Strychninum nitricum, Strychninnitrat, Salpetersaures Strychnin.) Obtained by dissolving strychnine (1) in diluted nitric acid (1880), or strychnine (5), hot dist. water (50), dilute nitric acid q. s., when neutral evaporate, crystallize. It is in colorless, glistening needles, white, crystalline powder, odorless (must use great caution in tasting, and then only in very dilute solutions, which are exceedingly bitter - 1 in 700,000), permanent, soluble in water (42), boiling water (9), alcohol (150), hot alcohol (77), glycerin (50), chloroform (105),. insoluble in ether; saturated aqueous solution neutral, slightly acid, laevorotatory; contains 84.13 p. c. of the alkaloid. Tests: 1. Pour carefully a solution of the salt into a test-tube upon a layer of sulphuric acid containing diphenylamine in solution - blue color at zone of contact. 2. Heat with hydrochloric acid - bright red color. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/60-1/20
Strychninae Sulphas, Strychnine Sulphate, (C21H22N2O2)2.H2SO4 + 5H20, official. - (Syn., Strych. Sulph.; Fr. Sulfate de Strychnine; Ger. Strychninum sulfuricum, Strychninsulfat, Schwefelsaures Strychnin.) Obtained by dissolving strychnine in diluted sulphuric acid, avoiding excess, evaporating filtrate, crystallizing. It is in colorless, white, prismatic crystals, white, crystalline powder, odorless, efflorescent (must use great caution in tasting, and then only in very dilute solutions, which are exceedingly bitter - 1 in 700,000), soluble in water (32), boiling water (7), alcohol (81), hot alcohol (26), chloroform (220), glycerin, insoluble in ether; saturated aqueous solution (1 in 50) neutral, slightly acid; contains 78.03 p. c. of the alkaloid. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution with barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 2. Dried to constant weight at 100° C. (212° F.) - loses 11 p. c. (all water of crystallization). Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/60-1/20 (.001-003 Gm.).
Brucine (Brucina), C23H25N2O4. - Named after James Bruce (1730-1794), a Scotch traveler, and obtained in extracting strychnine; occurs in rectangular, octahedral crystals, containing 4H20, soluble in water (850), readily in chloroform, alcohol, ammonia, creosote; forms numerous salts, less bitter than strychnine, 12 times weaker, 3 times slower physiologically; by some considered to be strychnine + resin, as it has same action. Test: 1. With nitric acid - blood-red color, changing to orange-yellow; now add stannous chloride, sulphurous acid, or any deoxidizing agent - violet-red (this completely bleaches morphine-red). Dose, gr. 1/12-1/2 (.005-.03 Gm.).
Igasurine (Igasuria), fr. Malay, igasura, the nux vomica. - Obtained from mother-waters of strychnine and brucine after their precipitation with lime; occurs in white crystals; by some claimed to be a mixture of 9 alkaloids, mostly brucine; others doubt its existence.
Igasuric Acid. - Identical with tannic or caffeo-tannic acid, amorphous, dark green with ferric salts, by hydrolysis yields glucose and caffeic acid.
Loganin, C25H34O14. - Bitter glucoside, in white prisms, soluble in water, alcohol; with sulphuric acid - red, then purple, and splits into sugar and loganetin.
Preparations. - 1. Extraction Nucis Vomicoe. Extract of Nux Vomica. (Syn., Ext. Nuc. Vom., Powdered Extract of Nux Vomica; Fr. Extrait de Noix vomique; Ger. Extractum Strychni, Brechnuss-extrakt.)
Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 75 p. c. alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue to 20 Ml. (Cc), transfer to separator (flask), rinse still with little warm 75 p. c. alcohol, which add to separator, + water 15 Ml. (Cc.) + purified petroleum benzin 20 Ml. (Cc.), shake thoroughly several minutes, decant benzin layer, shake residue again with purified petroleum benzin 10 Ml. (Cc), decant benzin layer; wash mixed benzin solutions with water 10 Ml. (Cc.) -+- diluted sulphuric acid 1 Ml. (Cc), separate aqueous layer, wash twice again with same menstruum; collect aqueous solutions in a separator, render alkaline with ammonia water, shake out with 3 portions of chloroform (2, 1, 1 Ml. (Cc.) respectively), add chloroform solutions to the extract, evaporate on water-bath to dryness, frequently stirring; after assay add enough mixture (magnesium oxide 1 + dried starch 3) for extract to contain 16 p. c of total alkaloids; pulverize, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains 15.2-16.8 - 16 p. c of the alkaloids. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1/8-1/2 (.008-03 Gm.).
2. Fluidextractum Nucis Vomicoe. Fluidextract of Nux Vomica. (Syn., Fldext. Nuc Vom., Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica; Fr. Extrait fluide de Noix-vomique; Ger. Krahenaugen (Strychnossamen) fluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 75 p. c alcohol; reserve first 80 Ml. (Cc.), in which dissolve soft extract, assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain 2.37-2.63 - 2.5 Gm. of alkaloids. Dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
3. Tinctura Nucis Vomicoe. Tincture of Nux Vomica. (Syn., Tr. Nuc. Vom.; Fr. Teinture de Noix-vomique; Ger. Tinctura Strychni, Brechnusstinktur, Krahenaugentinktur.)
Manufacture: 10 p. c Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: 75 p. c alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .237-.263 - .25 Gm. of total alkaloids; rate of flow of percolate should be 10 drops per minute. Dose, ev-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)).