Hydrops ad matulam. See Diabetes. Hydrops arti 'culi. See Hydrops genu. Hydrops cysticus. The encysted dropsy is a collection of water enclosed in a cyst, which is sometimes from a collection of hydatids, and generally in the abdomen. See Hydatis and Hydrops ovarii. Le Dran's Observations, edit. 2. p. 129.
Hydrops ge'.nu. A dropsy in the knee; water collected under the capsular ligament of the knee. Dr. Hunter observes, that if the synovia is separated in too large a quantity, and the absorbents fail in their action, an hydrops articuli succeeds, causing relaxation of the ligament. Mr. Sharp recommends a tight bandage, leaving the superfluity to be absorbed by the lymphatics. To this might be added some attenuating and discutient embrocation, such as the aq. ammoniae ace-" tatae; or a solution of crude sal ammoniac in sharp vinegar: their proportion may be ss. to lb i. See Gooch's Cases and Remarks, vol. ii. p. 259 - 266; Edinburgh Medical Commentaries, vol. vi.p. 132.
Hydrops medullae spinalis. See Spina bifida.
Hydrops ovarii. A dropsy of the ovarium. This species of encysted dropsy most frequently happens to barren and superannuated, sometimes to preg-. nant women. It usually begins without pain, and the health is unimpaired. It is not perceived until it is much enlarged, and commonly appears but on one side. It is known by its being moveable when the patient is laid on her back, and by passing the finger up the vagina the orifice of the uterus is found to move with the tumour, which distinguishes it from the ascites. But it seldom happens that the tumour rises above the pelvis, till general dropsy has come on and obliterated the situation of the tumour. In this species, the fluctuation is indistinct, and the disease is generally, and indeed we believe constantly, occasioned by hydatids. When there are several cysts, there are sometimes inequalities in the tumour, and it has the feel of scirrhus. Internal medicines are of little efficacy: tapping may relieve for a time, and the operation is as safe as in the common ascites; but the resistance to the instrument is considerable, for the cyst thickens by pressure. Diuretics, purgatives, and mercurials, are equally inefficacious. Dr. Percival gives an instance of a cure being effected by a spontaneous vomiting; see his Essays, Medical and Experimental. But to assist the general health of the patient is almost the only means in our power.
Hydrops pectoris, also Hydrothorax. A Dropsy in the breast. Dr: Cullen places it in the class cachexia, and order intumencentiae; defining it a difficulty of breathing, pallid countenance, oedematous swelling of the feet, difficulty in lying down, a sudden and spontaneous starting out of sleep with palpitation, and water fluctuating in the chest. The water may be on only one or both sides of the mediastinum: it is usually on one side only; but sometimes this fluid is contained in hydatids, whose situation may be on the diaphragm, the pleura, on the external surface of the lungs, in their substance, on the surface of the heart, or in the pericardium. In this case the knowledge of the case and cure are alike uncertain.
Any of the causes of dropsy may produce this species; it sometimes happens from increased exhalation in consequence of a disorder of the lungs, or from an infarction of the bronchial glands, occasioning obstruction to the passage of the blood; often from debility only, seldom from hydatids.
The symptoms, particularly when the water is extra-vasated on the diaphragm, are an oppression of the pre-cordia, a very irregular pulse, and an extraordinary shortness of breath, sometimes relieved by a supine posture: in this it is distinguished from fits of asthma when the patient cannot lie down. A distinguishing symptom of this disease is, the starting from sleep with a sense of suffocation; and though this may sometimes attend obstructions in the thorax, from other causes, it almost constantly attends every hydrothorax when in a considerable degree. In the dropsy of the breast, also, oedematous swellings are not only observed in the feet but also in the hands, which Baglivi says is a pathognomonic sign; and it certainly is so, when united with a coldness of the hands, and a livid colour of the lips. Inspiration is more easy than expiration; and if there is much water on one side, the face, arm, and leg on that side are sometimes swollen.
Instances have occurred in which the water hath been" absorbed; but, for the most part, the patient falls a victim to the disease. As a palliative, when the water is perceived to fluctuate, it may be drawn off by a ca-nula and trochar, introduced betwixt the fourth and fifth of the false ribs, and about four fingers breadth from the spine. The seat of the disease, however, can seldom be so accurately ascertained as to admit of this operation, and we must, in general, rest on the remedies of dropsy. Blisters on the legs will, however, often relieve the complaint by evacuating much water, and drawing it downward. Digitalis is supposed to be a remedy peculiarly adapted to this complaint, and it sometimes appears to be useful in obstructions of the chest from any cause. The ether of Mr. Tickell, which contains a proportion of the oleum vini, is said also to be a very useful remedy; but we have seldom found any particular advantages from it. As an antispasmodic, it may be supposed to relieve what are styled the symp-tomata ephialtica, the startings from the sleep; but in this respect its efficacy is doubtful, and opium succeeds more certainly and more effectually. When the load of water is partly taken off, this is a safe remedy. Vide Hydrops, Ascites, and Anasarca. See Le Dran's Operations, edit. 2. p. 117, 118; Cullen's First Lines, vol. iv; Bell's Surgery, vol. ii. p. 356.
Hydrops pericardii. Dropsy of the pericardium, a superabundance of watery fluid collected within the pericardium. There are no symptoms by which the disease can be certainly discovered in the living body; cases can only be referred to, in some of which the cause has been suspected, in others ascertained, by dissection. In general, there are great oppression and anxiety, a labouring irregular pulse, with the other symptoms of hydrothorax. The treatment does not differ from that of hydrops pectoris. See Sauvages' Hydrothorax Pericardii, Morgagni de Causis Sedibus-que Morborum, xvi. 34, 36; Senac. de Cceur, torn. ii. p. 349; Bouillet, Dissert. 1758; Edinburgh Medical Essays, vol. v. p. 56, 58, 59.
Hydrops pulmonum. The dropsy of the lungs is seated in the cellular membrane of the lungs. Sometimes it attacks suddenly, from an hydatid bursting,and filling the cellular membrane.
The diagnostics are very obscure: the difficulty in breathing is constant, and increased by the least motion, though not much varied by different attitudes and situations; the anxiety about the precordia is considerable; and, on attempting a deep inspiration, the patient finds it impossible to dilate his chest, and his breath seems to be suddenly stopped: the pulse is small, languid, and oppressed; the face pale and bloated; the legs swelled, and the whole body leucophleg-matic.
A brisk mercurial cathartic will often give very quick relief. After this, the seneka root, in large doses, will be useful, as it operates powerfully by expectoration, urine, and perspiration. Besides these the usual diuretics and sudorifics may be administered. If the case is desperate, an operation, as in the empyema, may be tried. See Edinburgh Medical Essays, vol. vi. p. 126; Perci-val's Essays, Medical and Experimental, p. 172; Bell's Surgery, vol. ii. p. 356, Sec.
Hydrops sacculi lachrymalis. See Hernia Lachrymalis.
Hydrops scroti, and Hydrops testis. See Hydrocele.
Hydrops umbilicalis; umbilical dropsy; exom-phalus aqueus Platneri; hydromphalus of AEgineta, Heister, Dionis.
It occurs in pregnant women, from severe labours; infants who labour under ascites and hernia umbilicalis. According to Platner, it scarcely can ever happen without an umbilical rupture and ascites; the tumour is soft, fluctuating, permanent, and pellucid, when examined by the light of a candle. The treatment is that of hydrocele.
Hydrops uteri. Dropsy of the womb, is seated in the cavity of the womb, and the collection of water there is so great, that the belly appears as if affected with an ascites: on pressure, a fluctuation is perceived. It may take place during pregnancy, but is not usually an attendant. Dr. Cullen defines it a tumour of the hypogastric region, slowly and gradually increasing,resembling the figure of the uterus, yielding to, or fluctuating on, pressure; without ischury or pregnancy. From Sauvages he enumerates seven species, which cannot, however, be distinguished by external signs, viz. Hydrometra ascitica; hydrometra gravidarum; hy-drometra hydatica; hydrometra sanguinca; hydrometra puriformis; hydrometra ascites uterinus; and hydrometra sanguineo-uterinus.
The diagnostics are not distinct; for many fallacious sings of pregnancy accompany this disorder. It is distinguished from the ascites by its being confined to the region of the uterus, and by the thinness of the os tincae. If the tumour is from a scirrhus, it is never in the middle, nor is it round, like the dropsy. This disease is soon followed by an anasarca, a slow fever, and a marasmus.
A canula introduced into the uterus is the best and speediest remedy; but sometimes a scirrhus, a cicatrix, or tubercles prevent it. If the canula cannot be introduced, hard riding, violent shocks, with emetics, sternutatories, and brisk cathartics, may be employed. Hydropyretos, from water, and a fiver). Sudor Angliais. Blanchard.