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Plumbing Estimates And Contracts | by J. J. Cosgrove



In presenting this volume to the public the author completes a set of books devoted exclusively to plumbing which covers the calling from practice to contracting. The several books included in the set are: "Principles and Practice of Plumbing," "Wrought Pipe Drainage Systems," "Sewage Purification and Disposal," Plumbing Plans and Specifications," "Plumbing Estimates and Contracts" and "History of Sanitation.

TitlePlumbing Estimates And Contracts
AuthorJ. J. Cosgrove
PublisherStandard Sanitary Mfg. Co.
Year1910
Copyright1910, Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co.
AmazonPlumbing estimates and contracts
Plumbing Estimates And ContractsPlumbing Estimates And Contracts 2

By J. J. Gosgrove, author of "Principles And Practice Of Plumbing", "Sewage Purification And Disposal", "History Of Sanitation", "Wrought Pipe Drainage Systems", "Plumbing Plans And Specifications", "Design Of Turkish Baths".

-Preface
In Presenting this volume to the public the author completes a set of books devoted exclusively to plumbing which covers the calling from practice to contracting. The several books included in the...
-Publisher's Note
IN THE publisher's note, printed in the various books which preceded this one, we endeavored to make clear our connection with the publication of technical works on plumbing and sanitation, and fo...
-Part I. Estimates. Chapter I. Estimating From Complete Plans And Specifications. Taking Off Quantities. Scope Of An Estimate
To intelligently and successfully estimate the cost of plumbing work requires more than a mere knowledge of the construction of buildings, the ability to read plans and the skill to take off quant...
-Order Of Estimating
It stands to reason that some system or order must be observed in taking off quantities, if confusion is to be avoided and every item entering into the makeup of the work included. For instance, if th...
-Reading Of Specifications
The careful estimator will study out not only the plumbing specifications but will likewise read through the general conditions of the general specifications to see if there is anything there which af...
-Accuracy Of Estimates
Accuracy is of prime importance in the making of an estimate, for it would profit a man nothing to be awarded all the work he figures on, only to find that he has lost money on every contract. Convers...
-Scaling Drawings
Plans for a building cannot conveniently be made of the full size of the building, so they are made much smaller but drawn to scale, so that the proportions on the drawings all bear the same relation ...
-Permits
In almost every city a fee is exacted for opening a street, tapping a water main and connecting to the street sewer, consequently, these items of expense must be taken into account when making up an e...
-Digging And Refilling Trenches
The estimator will first ascertain from a comparison of specifications whether the digging of pipe trenches is to be part of the plumbing contract. In case it is, he must next determine the length, de...
-Estimating Cost Of Earthenware Sewer
To find the cost of earthenware sewers, scale the plans to find the number of lineal feet of pipe that will be required. To this amount add a certain percentage to allow for defective pipes and length...
-Estimating Cost Of Cast-Iron Soil Pipe
In scaling the cast-iron soil pipe shown on plans, no deduction is made for fittings unless the fittings are massed together in such a bunch that little or no pipe will be used, in which case the care...
-List Of Materials
Quantity Material 85 feet........... 4-inch extra heavy tar-coated soil pipe 22 feet........... 3-inch extra heavy ta...
-Estimating Cost Of Wrought Pipe
In taking off the quantity of wrought pipe for an operation the plans are scaled, as in the case of cast-iron pipe, and the fittings are counted. All of the branch fittings that will be required can b...
-Estimating Cost Of Wrought Pipe. Continued
Such a table will save untold time figuring the number of the smaller fittings in a pound of the various classes, or the number of pounds in a fitting of the larger sizes. The card can easily be ruled...
-Estimating Cost Of Copper Or Brass Pipe
Brass pipe, also copper pipe, is sold by the pound, the Table XII. Seamless Drawn Brass And Copper Tubes Iron Pipe Sizes Same as Iron Pipe Inches Weight per Foot...
-Estimating Lead Roughing
The lead roughing for a toilet room is estimated by taking off all the quantities, such as lead pipe, bends, traps, ferrules, solder nipples and solder required for the work. To this, of course, would...
-Estimating Lead Roughing. Continued
Table XV. Size And Weight Of Lead Pipes Caliber Weight per Foot Pounds Ounces 3/32-inch Tubing.......................
-Estimating Sheet-Lead Work
Estimating the material for sheet-lead work, such as the lining of tanks with lead, is very simple. All that is necessary to find the amount of lead is to measure the square feet of surface to be cove...
-Originality In Estimating. Use Of Stock Fittings
It may be laid down as a general rule, to which there are only a few exceptions, that the entire work in a plumbing installation should be made up of standard stock pipe and fittings. This is part...
-Use Of Special Fittings
In this sense the word special is used not to designate fittings which are made to order, but such stock fittings as are seldom used in practice. An examination of the fittings listed in plumbing ca...
-Use Of Special Fittings. Continued
Fig. 17 In Fig. 17 is shown a fitting with four outlets all of the same size. This type of fitting will be found very convenient in many installations, and, although the design might be vastly impr...
-Economizing Pipe
When plumbing details of the roughing-in of various toilet rooms form part of the working drawings in a set, there is not much choice left the plumber but to comply with the requirements. When, howeve...
-Locating The Vertical Stacks
In deciding where to extend the soil and vent stack up through the toilet rooms or bath rooms on the various floors of a building the arrangement of the fixtures must be carefully studied and the stac...
-Rearranging The Fixtures Or Stacks
Most plumbing plans are prepared by a draughtsman who knows very little about the niceties of plumbing design and who gives the layout but little study. Consequently, very few sets of plans are submit...
-Estimating Labor
In the estimating of plumbing work the one uncertain item of expense is the labor. This is due to two causes. In the first place, all workmen are not equally good designers, and those who do not plan ...
-Checking The Estimate For Labor
Noting the time required for roughing-in the lead work and setting the fixtures in the bath room will show the estimator how the labor he estimates for any building can be checked. The roughing-in ...
-Estimating Catch Glauses
In many specifi-tions the estimator will find paragraphs to the effect that a certain well-known first-quality fixture or one equally good will be required, and he is at a loss how to estimate under...
-Allowance For Salvation Glauses
When an architect or engineer is incompetent to prepare plumbing plans and write the specification so as to cover fully all the materials to be furnished and the work he wants done, he covers his inco...
-Allowing For Incidentals And Sundries
No estimator, no matter how careful he may be, will be able to foresee all the material that will be required for a certain operation or who can foretell all items of expense. The caving of a trench w...
-Allowance For Board And Car Fare
It is necessary to allow for the item of board only when the operation is out of town and workmen must be sent to the site to live during the installation of the work. In allowing for board for the wo...
-Allowance For Guaranteeing Work
In some specifications there is a clause requiring the contractor to guarantee the installation against defects in workmanship and material for a certain period of time, usually from one to two years,...
-Allowance For Operating Expenses
In the conducting of a business there are sundry items - such as rent, light, fuel, clerk hire, bookkeeping, stationery, delivery horse and wagon, advertising, display, salary for the contractor and u...
-Allowing Profit
In estimating, the question often arises, who is to profit by an estimator's or contractor's skill in design, economy of management, or closeness in buying. That is, suppose by rearranging fixtures an...
-Estimating From Incomplete Plans
It is a simple enough matter to take off quantities from a set of drawings which are full and complete and are accompanied by detail drawings; but, when the drawings only show the locations of the var...
-Making Up The Estimate. Use Of Estimate Blanks
The first act of an estimator when about to figure on a set of plans is to provide himself with a schedule of materials likely to be used, so that nothing can be overlooked when taking off quantit...
-Form Of Estimate Blank
An estimate blank, to be general in its scope and applicable to. all parts of the country, would necessarily have items that would not be used under all conditions. For instance, for suburban work and...
-Calculating The Cost. List Price On Goods
The real net prices at which goods are sold to those regularly engaged in the plumbing business are never or seldom stated in plumbing supply catalogues. Instead, certain prices are quoted which a...
-Trade Discount
Trade discounts are reductions made by manufacturers or jobbers to those regularly engaged in the plumbing business from the prices listed in their catalogues. Discounts are computed by the rules of p...
-Boxing, Grating And Cartage
An item which must not be overlooked by the estimator when taking off his items or making up the quantities, is the charge made for boxing and crating goods for shipment. The prices charged for goods,...
-Boxing And Cartage
All boxing and crating is charged by us at cost. If packages are returned to us in good order, we will credit them, less freight and other expenses. Cartage will likewise be charged. In addition...
-Conditions
Catalogues And Prices This catalogue supersedes all previous editions; and all former lists, plate numbers, illustrations, discounts and quotations are hereby withdrawn. All prices herein quoted ar...
-Freight And Drayage
Prices on goods are sometimes quoted F. O. B. factory or supply house. By F. O. B. or f. o. b. is meant free on board or freight on board. That is, the seller of the goods will deliver them at the rec...
-Computing The Cost Of Wages
For convenience in estimating and making out payrolls Tables XXIII and XXIV are here introduced. These tables show the amount of wages to be paid per day, or week at eight, nine and ten hours per day ...
-Checking Plumbing Estimates
No bid for plumbing work should ever be submitted without first checking up the estimate by some empirical rule to see if the amount figured is about what it should be. When a contractor has estimated...
-Cost Book
The plumbing contractor should keep a cost book, properly indexed, in which to note the latest quotations on materials received by him. Plumbing supply houses send out from time to time new discount s...
-Getting Jobbers' Prices On Lists Of Goods
When figuring on a large installation containing a great many fixtures and correspondingly large quantities of pipe fittings and brass goods, the plumber will find that he can get a much better price ...
-Contracts. Chapter V. Business Of Contracting. Starting In Business
It is the ambition of a large percentage of the journeymen plumbers to engage in business for themselves, but most of them are unfortunate in possessing no business training or experience. For the...
-Business Capital
The first requisite of business success is sufficient capital to carry on the business when it is established. The amount of working capital that will be required depends so much on many different con...
-Opening A Line Of Credit
No matter how great the amount of capital invested in a business it would not be sufficient if the contractor had to pay cash for all of his purchases. Even though it were sufficient, paying cash for ...
-Extending Credit To Others
No less important than the securing of credit is the extending of credit to others. The young business man will soon discover that all orders brought to his shop do not represent profit, and that the ...
-Place Of Business
When ready to make a start the prospective business man is often at a loss where to establish his business. If he has been brought up in one town, where he is well and favorably known, he no doubt wil...
-Store And Window Display
If the plumbing contractor rents a store for his place of business he wants to get out of it all the value that is possible, and no better means can be found to that end than to put in a good display ...
-Advertising
No person can be really successful in business without advertising. By the term advertising is not meant, necessarily, the paying for space in the local papers and in street cars - although those are ...
-Preparation Of Advertising Copy
In the preparation of advertising copy do not be satisfied with a mere business card, containing the name, business and location, but tell a story in each issue of the paper. The copy need not be c...
-Display In Advertising
A good, neat, appropriate illustration goes far toward making an advertisement attractive, as well as attracting the attention of those who are interested in the subject. In order to be of value, howe...
-Advertising Mediums
Of the various mediums offered for advertising there are none better than the local newspapers and street-car signs. If these two mediums are properly worked they should produce in time a rich harvest...
-Incidental Advertising
The wide-awake business man can gain much publicity of a paying kind by keeping his name and business constantly before the public in the form of little news items, interesting write-ups and interview...
-Salesmanship
As a rule, advertising only creates a demand for goods, a desire to own, and discloses those who are interested. It is then that salesmanship must take up the transaction and negotiate the sale to a s...
-Suggestion In Business
The young contractor should bear in mind that suggestion is the source of business enterprise, and the highest quality of salesmanship. If people never purchased goods or had work done until they thou...
-Cost-Marking Goods
When a prospective purchaser asks the price of a fixture the answer must be forthcoming without delay if you wish to hold the attention of the customer. Nothing seems to so irritate a man as to stand ...
-Submitting An Estimate
It is assumed that in submitting an estimate the plumber does so honestly, in all fairness, and without collusion or combination with other contractors. These introductory remarks might be out of plac...
-Form Of Tender
Having arrived at the price for which the contractor is willing to do a certain piece of work, all that remains is to send a formal bid for the work to the architect, owner or whoever has the letting ...
-Signing The Contract
If a formal contract is to be entered into, when the time comes for signing the contract read it through carefully to satisfy yourself that there are no objectionable clauses. If by the terms of the c...
-Different Plans Of Letting Contracts
There are three different plans of letting contracts, all of which the contractor should be thoroughly familiar with. The difference between the three methods lies in the manner of compensating the co...
-Day Work
The plan of doing work by the day is seldom applied to large undertakings, but is generally confined to small orders for repairs or alterations. When so applied, the day-work plan operates very satisf...
-Office Methods. Keeping Books
The keeping of a complete set of books so that the exact standing of the business can be determined any time has already been mentioned. Little more need be said on the subject, as the necessity a...
-Auditing Bills
No bill should ever be paid without going over the items carefully to check them up and see that nothing is charged for that was not delivered, or that nothing is charged for at a higher price than wh...
-Discounting Bills
In the business world thirty days is considered cash. That is to say, if the bills are paid thirty days after shipment of the goods it is considered as being a cash transaction. In some lines sixty da...
-Catalogue Cabinet
The value of catalogues in business should not be overlooked by the plumbing contractor, who will do well to provide himself with a cabinet or book case for the filing of his catalogues, and some lett...
-Telephones
In this age of quick communication, when time spent in running errands or writing unnecessary letters is money wasted, the plumbing contractor should have a telephone in his office and in his home. If...
-The Execution Of Contracts. Superintending The Work
The young business man must not feel that because he estimates on the work, secures the contracts, audits the bills and cares for the office work that his whole duty is performed. It is useless to...
-Working With Tools
It must be accepted as a rule to which there is no exception that the plumber cannot work with the tools after engaging in business, and at the same time look after the other details so as to make a s...
-Training Of Men
To successfully conduct the mechanical end of the business the contractor must have complete control over and be in harmony with his workmen. To do so he must treat them with fairness and pay them the...
-Selection Of Helpers
Very few contracting plumbers realize the value and importance of helpers and exercise sufficient care in their selection; yet no other factor so affects the quantity and quality of work turned out by...
-Workmen's Wages
There are some workmen so superior to others in speed and judgment that they will perform at least one-third more work per day than the average amount turned out in a shop. When the services of such a...
-Foremen
The plumbing business seems the only one connected with building where foremen are not considered necessary; or if a plumber is put in charge of work he is not given extra compensation for his service...
-Business Law. Chapter VIII. The Law Of Contracts. Explanation Of A Contract
A contract is legally defined as an agreement, or undertaking between two or more parties, for the doing or the not doing of some particular thing. In order to be perfectly valid and binding, a co...
-Parties To A Contract
Before signing a contract, the plumber should satisfy himself that the person with whom he is dealing is legally capable of making a contract or is duly authorized. If the person is not of age, is men...
-Statute Of Frauds
For the prevention of fraud, a code of laws called The Statute of Frauds, has been enacted in every state throughout the Union. These statutes, while very similar, vary slightly in different states, s...
-Form Of Contract
A contract may be a very formal document prepared with due deliberation after all the terms have been fully considered, or, as is more often the case, it may be a specific tender and and unqualified a...
-Form Of Contract. Continued
Art. II. It is understood and agreed by and between the parties hereto that the work included in this contract is to be done under the direction of the said Architects, and that their decision as to t...
-Release From Contract
Once a contract has been formally entered into, either by a specific offer and an unqualified acceptance, or by the signing of an agreement, drawn up in due form, it becomes binding on both parties, a...
-Conditional Sales
A fact well worth knowing by the plumber is that in the eyes of the law, plumbing fixtures, so called, are not really fixtures in the sense that when they are set in place they become annexed to and p...
-Signatures To A Contract
The signatures to a contract must be subscribed, that is, they must be placed at the bottom of the contract and are usually placed at the lower right hand side. In case a person cannot write, his mark...
-Tenders For Work
The privilege is commonly reserved in all public work of rejecting any or all bids, and this has led to the common belief that in all work the contract must be awarded to the lowest bidder. Except in ...
-Extra Work
An article is generally incorporated in every specification, or if omitted there, is included in the contract, stipulating that no extra work shall be paid for unless ordered in writing. The courts of...
-Acceptance Of Work
The making of final payment for a contract, the written acceptance by the owner, or the certificate of the architect, does not always operate as a full acceptance of the work and discharge of the cont...
-Time Limit On Contracts
When no set time has been stipulated for the completion of a contract, the plumber cannot exercise his own sweet will and complete the work whenever he pleases. In the absence of an express understand...
-Penalties And Premiums
In a contract, the stipulation is generally made that a certain sum per day shall be paid the owner as liquidated damages, for every day the contract remained unfinished beyond the stipulated time. Wh...
-Law Of Insurance
There are two conditions regarding insurance, which the plumber must consider when he engages in business. The first is, to cover his stock, furniture and fixtures with a policy of insurance. This is ...
-Leases
The principal condition for the plumber to guard against when signing a lease, is a condition calling upon him to keep the premises in repair and at the expiration of the lease to surrender them in as...







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