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Art And Education In Wood-Turning | by William W. Klenke



This book is intended primarily for the use of students in normal schools, high schools, colleges or similar institutions and for lovers of all things useful and beautiful in wood-turning. It aims by means of text and illustrations to give such facts about the art of wood-turning as are needed by students and teachers in the schools. In giving these facts, whenever there is a question between two methods of procedure, the one being the method of the factory expert in wood-turning, and the other the method of the art craftsman in the school, the latter has been employed. As a result it is sometimes true that a less direct method is recommended than is employed by the commercial turner, but this is justified on the ground of the purpose of the book, which is fundamentally educational.

TitleArt And Education In Wood-Turning
AuthorWilliam W. Klenke
PublisherThe Manual Arts Press
Year1921
Copyright1921, William W. Klenke
AmazonArt And Education In Wood-Turning

Art And Education In Wood-Turning

A Textbook And Problem Book For The Use Of Students

By William W. Klenke Instructor In Woodworking And Architectural Drawing, Central Commercial And Manual Training High School, Newark, New Jersey

To My Wife Edith Elizabeth

-Foreword
This book is intended primarily for the use of students in normal schools, high schools, colleges or similar institutions and for lovers of all things useful and beautiful in wood-turning. It aims by ...
-List Of Plates
PLATE PAGE I. Shoulders, V's and Beads, Coves........ 25 II. Darning Ball................. 31 III. Potato Masher................. 37 IV. Indian Club.................. 39 V. Dumb Bell.........,......
-The Shop
Fig. I shows the plan of a shop similar to one in use at the Central High School, Newark, N. J. The shop should be equipped with both benches and lathes so that it may serve a three-fold purpose - tha...
-Tools And Equipment
Having decided upon the type of lathe to be used, the next step is the general arrangement of the shop equipment. Fig. I shows the position of the lathes and benches, so as to get the maximum amount ...
-Grinding And Sharpening
Generally speaking, turning tools may be divided into three groups, (a) the roughing-off tools, (the gouge), (b) the smoothing or cleaning-up tools, (the skew), and (c) the scraping tools, (the flat s...
-Starting Spindle Work
In order to get the most out of the stock given, and also to lessen vibration at the lathe, it is essential that one learn how to locate the center of the wood to be turned. Fig. 9,1 illustrates a ve...
-Roughing With A Gouge
Fig. 12 illustrates a good position at the lathe. Put the weight of the body on the left foot; place the right foot one step forward. In this position the operator has freedom of motion to rock back a...
-The Parting Tool And Calipers
In order that the wood-turner may have some quick and efficient method for obtaining a desired diameter, he resorts to the use of a parting tool and a pair of calipers, Fig. 15. Where, however, a numb...
-The Skew Used For Smoothing Cylinders
Place the skew high up on the wood and draw downward, gradually, lifting on the handle, until the bevel clears the wood, allowing the tool to cut. Always keep the toe above the wood, Fig. 18, cutting ...
-The Skew Chisel For V's And Beads
Having indicated, with a light pencil line, the location and width of the V, hold the 1/2 skew at the proper angle (that of the V) and with a slicing motion, using only the very point of heel or toe ...
-The Gouge Used For Turning Coves
The cove is generally recognized by turners to be the most difficult form to cut, and to some extent this difficulty is due to the fact that the gouge is the most difficult turning tool to sharpen pro...
-Design
Before taking up our first completed problem, having acquired the necessary skill in turning beads, coves, etc., we must carefully consider the subject of design. It is too obvious to need further me...
-The Darning Ball
Our first complete problem, combining all the cuts of the three preceding exercises, is represented by the darning ball, Plate II. Plate II. In working out this problem, we not only make use of t...
-Sandpapering
All turning must be completed before any sandpapering is attempted; otherwise the small particles of sand will work their way into the pores of the wood, and should it then be necessary to do any furt...
-Finishing
Three steps are taken in order to put a finish on most work: e. g., (a) staining, (b) filling and (c) varnishing. The first and second of these steps, that of staining and filling, are not always empl...
-The Potato Masher
The stock for the potato masher is maple, 2 3/4x2 3/4x12. In working out this problem as with others, start at the large end and work towards the small end. See Fig. 30 for method of locating the ...
-Indian Clubs
The commercial wood for the Indian club, Plate IV, is maple. Oak works well, and so do most hard woods. For those who like something a little out of the ordinary, stock for a pair of clubs can be buil...
-Dumb-Bells
As with the Indian clubs, there is no special wood used for dumb-bells, Plate V, except that it is necessary to have a hardwood, such as maple, in order that it may stand rough usage. The stock is 3x...
-Screwdriver Handles
Almost any small scraps of hard wood work up well for the handle of a screwdriver, Plate VI. It will be found that many otherwise useless pieces of good wood can be utilized in this way. The small en...
-The Mallet
Lignum-vitas is the best wood for a mallet head, Plate VIII, but in public schools where only the cheaper grades of wood are supplied, it is necessary to fall back on good hard maple. The turning of ...
-Gavels
In designing a gavel, Plates IX and X, and in selecting wood for the same, there are a few requirements we have to meet. Since a gavel is used in somewhat the same manner as a mallet (in that we strik...
-The Rolling Pin
The rolling pin, Plate XI, like all wooden kitchen utensils, is made of maple, because maple does not sliver easily, is hard, and holds its shape fairly well. To make it somewhat easier to understand,...
-Bowls
Bowls and solid trays, Plate XIII, come under the heading of face-plate work, and regardless of design, are all worked out in much the same manner. However to make the following description a little e...
-The Napkin Ring
Napkin rings, Plate XVII. To bring into use built-up work, and at the same time to make the napkin ring more ornamental, it is a good idea to glue up all stock for this problem, Fig. 31. The best wood...
-Picture Frames
The method for turning a picture frame, Plate XXI, is quite the same as a napkin ring. In most cases, the screw-chuck method will be found to work satisfactorily, altho it is often advisable to glue t...
-Boxes
There are two general types of boxes to consider: those having the cover fitting on the inside, Plate XXII, and those having the cover fitting on the outside, Plate XXIII. Most boxes are of the latter...
-Combination Turning. Candlesticks
Candlesticks, electroliers and all problems requiring both spindle and face-plate turning, come under this heading. Our first example will be a candlestick, Plates XXIV, XXV, and XXVI, made of some h...
-Lamp Standard
Where it is desirable to have the wiring of the lamp standard start at the base and go thru the shaft, it becomes necessary to work out a hole about 3/8 in diameter the entire length of the shaft, jo...
-Lathe Boring
For accuracy, speed and ease, there is no better way of boring a hole in wood, where the equipment is limited, than by using the lathe. To bore a mallet head, (a) start the hole at the bench so as to...
-Segment Work
In order to turn large diameters so that there shall be practically no warping or changing of shape, and at the same time no sacrifice of strength, it will be necessary to use segments. Plate XXVI...
-Serving Tray
Since a serving tray, Plate XXI, is nothing more than a large picture frame with two rebates on the back, Fig. 55, it will be necessary to rechuck the work. On account of the large diameter, and to av...
-Collar Box
(a) Glue three pieces of stock together, Plate XXX, each a little over 1/8 in thickness, with the grain of the center piece running at right angles to the other two. When the glue has set, (b) cut ou...
-Button Box
The button box in the center, Plate XXX, is turned separately on a screw chuck, leaving 1/4 dowel on the bottom for gluing in place. After all work has been completed, the felt is glued on the botto...
-Cheese And Cracker Dish
The working out of this problem, Plate XXXI, is merely a repetition of the foregoing problems. The stand is turned like the base of a candlestick, the top cup the same as the button box of the above p...
-Sewing Set
Like some of the other problems, the sewing set or stand, Plate XXXII, is simply a combination of several preceding problems. The base is turned in the same manner as that of the candlesticks; that is...
-Nut Set
A nut set may include six small bowls of any one of the designs in Plate XIII and one large bowl of the same design as indicated in Plate XXXIII. The large bowl differs from the small ones only in th...
-Clock Casing
When time permits, and a fine job is wanted, the clock casing, Plate XXXIV, is included under the heading of segment work. It is handled in the same manner as the serving trays, except that, being of ...
-The Tea Wagon Wheel
The tea wagon wheel presents no new problem from those having to do with segment and spindle work except in the making of the hub. From Plate XXXV it will be seen that the hub is turned in two pieces....
-Croquet Set
For a group problem, nothing works out so well and has more real educational value than the croquet set. Plate XXXVI and Fig. 56. Fig. 56. The Croquet Set. Plate XXXVI. The Mallet As with ...
-Long-Piece Turning. The Four-Post Bed
The stock for the posts, Plate XXXVII, should be mahogany, joined true to 2 7/8 x 2 7/8', so as to work out the square part, and also to make it easier to turn. Great care must be exercised in cent...
-The Floor Lamp
Where the floor lamp, Plates XXXVIII and XXXIX, is to be finished with stain, varnish, etc., mahogany, walnut or oak stock should be used. When a gold finish is desired, clear white pine serves very w...
-Woods Used In Turning
It is possible to turn any wood on the lathe, provided the wood is firm enough to hold together. All sorts of odds and ends, otherwise useless on account of knots and gnarly places, are pleasing when ...
-Don'Ts
Oak quarter-sawed white and red. Cherry. Sycamore quarter-sawed. Mahogany bay wood, Mexican, East Indian and African. Ebony gray, black. Cocobolo Panama, Nicaragua. Rosewood African. Snak...
-Shop Discipline
With the exception of the machine shop, there is probably no shop in school where the discipline should be more carefully watched than in wood-turning. In the first place it is always more or less dan...
-The Exhibit
There is great satisfaction to both student and instructor, after having worked along a certain course for several months, to be able to actually see what has been accomplished and to compare the work...







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