An inland state of the United States of Colombia, divided into the provinces of Pamplona, Casanare, Socorro, and Tunja, and bordering upon Venezuela and the states of Cundinamarca and Santander; area, 33,-349 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 482,874. The capital is Tunja, once the court of the Zaques kings, the implacable enemies of the Zipas of Bogota. The face of the country is traversed in the west by a chain of the Andes, and slopes toward the east into immense llanos or plains, little cultivated, and covered in part by dense forests and marshes, and in part by luxuriant pastures watered by the Meta and other tributaries of the Orinoco. Along the banks of the former river are almost the only inhabitants to be found in this region. The S. part of the state is intersected by morasses. The soil in some places is remarkably fertile; the lowlands yield in abundance all the tropical fruits and vegetables, as also cotton, cacao, sugar, tobacco, dyes, medicinal drugs, and an infinite variety of useful timber. The productions of the highlands are similar to those of Europe. Honey is plentiful, and the preserves from this state are much esteemed.
Vapors from numerous thermal springs in the south are condensed in dry weather and cover the surrounding fields with sulphate of soda, which is sold in the plains for the use of cattle at a high price. Near Tunja there are springs cold by day and very hot by night. The climate on the plains is hot and unhealthy, and fevers are common; in the valleys of the west and centre, though warm, it is very salubrious; in the highlands it is much cooler, but, as in most alpine regions, the inhabitants suffer very much from goitre, due in some localities to the use of impure water. Coarse cotton and woollen cloths, blankets, and flannels are manufactured, as also straw hats; and there are dyeworks, powder mills, tanneries, and spinning mills, and a considerable internal traffic. Cattle are extensively raised. Emeralds and some gold are found, but the mines are no longer worked. There are some lead mines in Socorro, as also fossil remains of colossal mammifers. The forests are infested by jaguars, wild cats, mapurites (species of badger), hideous snakes, coyas (venomous spiders), and green mosquitoes formidable on account of a worm which they deposit in the skin whenever they bite.
II. A small town of the above described state, on the road from Tunja to Bogota, 12 m. from the former, in lat. 5° 20' N., Ion. 73° 39' W. It is celebrated for the victory gained by the forces of New Granada, commanded by Bolivar, over the Spaniards, the whole of whose surviving troops, with arms, ammunition, and baggage, fell into the hands of the victor. This battle, fought Aug. 7, 1819, near the bridge of Boyaca, was decisive of the independence of New Granada. A college was established here in 1821.