A S. Province Of Brazil, bounded N. by Minas Geraes, E. by Rio de Janeiro and the Atlantic, S. by Parana, and W. by Matto Grosso; area, 93,547 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 835,000. The coast, 250 m. long, is fringed by numerous islands, the largest being that of São Sebastião. The best harbor is that of Santos. The Serra do Mar, forming the edge of the great Brazilian plateau, skirts the coast; its average height is 2,750 ft. On the W. side the country declines gently toward the plains of the Paraná basin. This region is watered by large rivers, mostly navigable for several hundred miles; the principal are the Grande and the Tieté, tributaries of the Paraná, which forms the W. boundary line of the province. The gold mines of Jaraguá were long famous. Pompeo sets down the yield of all the gold mines up to 1800 at 116,250 lbs. Silver, copper, and iron also occur, and diamonds, rubies, and other precious stones have been found. Valuable coal mines have recently been discovered. The climate in the west is mild, but on the coast it is hot. The soil is very rich, and the chief articles of cultivation are coffee, cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, maize, sweet potatoes, mandioca, and black beans.
The value of the coffee exported in 1870-'71 was $5,600,000, one fifth of which was to the United States; of the cotton, $1,300,000, half of which went to England. In 1873 there were 624 public schools, with 16,264 pupils.
A City, capital of the province, 40 m. N. N. W. of Santos, its port, and 225 m. W. by S. of Rio de Janeiro; pop. about 20,000. It stands on high ground, almost surrounded by a low plain. The streets are narrow and irregular, but well paved and lighted with gas; the houses are of adobe. The cathedral, a parish church, and several other churches attached to convents or nunneries, the bishop's and the president's palaces, the city hall, prison, three hospitals, and three stone bridges are noteworthy structures. São Paulo was founded by Jesuits in 1552; in 1712 it was incorporated as a city, and in 1746 was erected into a bishopric.